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As large portions of related genomes are being sequenced, methods for comparing complete or nearly complete genomes, as opposed to comparing individual genes, are becoming progressively more important. A major, widespread phenomenon in genome evolution is the rearrangement of genes and gene blocks. There is, however, no consistent method for genome sequence(More)
The Genotyping tool at the National Center for Biotechnology Information is a web-based program that identifies the genotype (or subtype) of recombinant or non-recombinant viral nucleotide sequences. It works by using BLAST to compare a query sequence to a set of reference sequences for known genotypes. Predefined reference genotypes exist for three major(More)
Three-dimensional structures are now known within most protein families and it is likely, when searching a sequence database, that one will identify a homolog of known structure. The goal of Entrez's 3D-structure database is to make structure information and the functional annotation it can provide easily accessible to molecular biologists. To this end,(More)
Reproductive strategies such as sexual reproduction and recombination that involve the shuffling of parental genomes for the production of offspring are ubiquitous in nature. However, their evolutionary benefit remains unclear. Many theories have identified potential benefits, but progress is hampered by the scarcity of relevant data. One class of theories(More)
Genetically diverse pathogens (such as Human Immunodeficiency virus type 1, HIV-1) are frequently stratified into phylogenetically or immunologically defined subtypes for classification purposes. Computational identification of such subtypes is helpful in surveillance, epidemiological analysis and detection of novel variants, e.g., circulating recombinant(More)
BACKGROUND HIV protease inhibitor (PI) therapy results in the rapid selection of drug resistant viral variants harbouring one or two substitutions in the viral protease. To combat PI resistance development, two approaches have been developed. The first is to increase the level of PI in the plasma of the patient, and the second is to develop novel PI with(More)
The predictability of virus-host interactions and disease progression in rapidly evolving human viral infections has been difficult to assess because of host and genetic viral diversity. Here we examined adaptive HIV-specific cellular and humoral immune responses and viral evolution in adult monozygotic twins simultaneously infected with the same virus. CD4(More)
This paper presents a method for the multiple alignment of a sequence set. The MASH algorithm uses a non-redundant database of common motifs and an 'alignment priority' criterion that depends on the length and the occurrence frequency of the patterns in the set of sequences. This user-defined criterion allows the determination of the series of the patterns(More)
BACKGROUND The CPCRA 064 study examined the effect of structured treatment interruption (STI) of up to 4 months followed by salvage treatment in patients failing therapy with multi-drug resistant HIV. We examined the relationship between the reversion rate of major reverse transcriptase (RT) resistance-associated mutations and change in viral replication(More)
We propose a new method, called 'size leap' algorithm, of search for motifs of maximum size and common to two fragments at least. It allows the creation of a reduced database of motifs from a set of sequences whose size obeys the series of Fibonacci numbers. The convenience lies in the efficiency of the motif extraction. It can be applied in the(More)