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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in women. In fact, CVD is responsible for a third of all deaths of women worldwide and half of all deaths of women over 50 years of age in developing countries. The prevalence of CVD risk factor precursors is increasing in children. Retrospective analyses suggest that there are some clinically(More)
BACKGROUND In patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), previous studies have reported reduced mortality rates in patients with increased body mass index (BMI). The potentially protective effect of increased BMI in CHF has been termed the obesity paradox or reverse epidemiology. This meta-analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between increased(More)
OBJECTIVES This study was designed to examine the use of cardiovascular medications and outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF) and renal dysfunction. BACKGROUND Renal insufficiency is associated with poorer outcomes in patients with HF, but the mechanisms are uncertain. In particular, the degree of therapeutic nihilism in these patients, and whether(More)
OBJECTIVE Overweight and obesity are often assumed to be risk factors for postprocedural mortality in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, recent studies have described an "obesity paradox" -- a neutral or beneficial association between obesity and mortality postcoronary revascularization. We reviewed the effect of overweight and obesity(More)
This study on patients undergoing coronary angiography for acute myocardial infarction demonstrated that 2.8% of patients had angiographically normal coronary arteries and that these patients have a better prognosis than patients with angiographically verified coronary artery disease. The trend toward a higher prevalence of malignancy in this unique patient(More)
PURPOSE Recent years have witnessed growing international interest in the active involvement, or engagement [patient engagement (PE)], of patients and the public in health services research. However, there is limited evidence of the extent or impact of PE in health-related quality of life (HRQL) and patient-reported outcomes (PRO) research. Therefore, in(More)
BACKGROUND Elderly patients with ischemic heart disease are increasingly referred for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, reports of poor outcomes in the elderly have led to questions about the benefit of these strategies. We studied survival by prescribed treatment (CABG, PCI, or medical therapy) for(More)
This review aims to provide new insights into the basis for sex differences in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Sex differences in mortality after ACS depend on age and the type of ACS, with the greatest gap being observed among younger adults and patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The sex gap diminishes with increasing age and(More)
CONTEXT Adjusted survival curves are often presented in medical research articles. The most commonly used method for calculating such curves is the mean of covariates method, in which average values of covariates are entered into a proportional hazards regression equation. Use of this method is widespread despite published concerns regarding the validity of(More)
BACKGROUND The Jeopardy Score from Duke University and the Myocardial Jeopardy Index from the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation (BARI) have been validated but never applied to a large unselected cohort. We assessed the prognostic value of these existing jeopardy scores, along with that of a new Lesion Score developed for the Alberta(More)