Colleen K. Loo

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BACKGROUND We tested whether transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is effective and safe in the acute treatment of major depression. METHODS In a double-blind, multisite study, 301 medication-free patients with major depression who had not benefited from prior treatment were randomized to active (n =(More)
BACKGROUND Preliminary evidence suggests transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has antidepressant efficacy. AIMS To further investigate the efficacy of tDCS in a double-blind, sham-controlled trial (registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00763230). METHOD Sixty-four participants with current depression received active or sham anodal tDCS to(More)
Two recent sham-controlled studies found that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was an effective treatment for depression. As tDCS is painless, relatively safe and inexpensive, its efficacy in treating depression warrants further investigation. This double-blind, randomized study tested tDCS at the same stimulation parameters as a previous(More)
OBJECTIVE The efficacy and safety of left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for treating resistant major depression were examined in a double-blind, controlled study. METHOD Eighteen medication-resistant depressed subjects were randomly assigned to 2 weeks of real or sham rTMS, then permitted up to 4 weeks of real rTMS.(More)
BACKGROUND Studies of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in depression have mostly involved once-daily treatment, with positive but modest clinical results. This study tested the efficacy and safety of twice-daily rTMS over 2 weeks. METHOD Thirty-eight depressed subjects enrolled in a double-blind, sham-controlled trial of twice-daily(More)
This review updates and consolidates evidence on the safety of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). Safety is here operationally defined by, and limited to, the absence of evidence for a Serious Adverse Effect, the criteria for which are rigorously defined. This review adopts an evidence-based approach, based on an aggregation of experience from(More)
BACKGROUND Several recent trials have reported transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to be effective in treating depression, though the relative benefits of different electrode montages remain unexplored. Whereas all recent studies have used a bifrontal (BF) electrode montage, studies published in the 1960s and 1970s placed one electrode in an(More)
BACKGROUND Evidence from recent clinical trials suggests that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may have potential in treating neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the optimal frequency at which tDCS sessions should be administered is unknown. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS This study investigated the effects of daily or second daily tDCS sessions on(More)
BACKGROUND Translation of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) from research to clinical practice is hindered by a lack of consensus on optimal stimulation parameters, significant inter-individual variability in response, and in sufficient intra-individual reliability data. OBJECTIVES Inter-individual differences in response to anodal tDCS at a(More)
There is growing interest worldwide in rTMS as a clinical treatment for depression. Apart from efficacy, its safety as a clinical treatment must be considered before its widespread use can be advocated. All published, sham-controlled rTMS depression trials were reviewed for reported side-effects and outcomes of formal neuropsychological testing. In(More)