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Clathrin-coated vesicle endocytosis and macropinocytosis are distinct endocytic pathways demonstrable in several cell types including human epidermoid A431 cells (West, M.A., M.S. Bretscher, and C. Watts. 1989. J. Cell Biol. 109:2731-2739). Here we analyze the extent of mixing of macropinocytic endosome (macropinosome) content with that of conventional(More)
Glioblastoma (GB) is the most common and aggressive primary brain malignancy, with poor prognosis and a lack of effective therapeutic options. Accumulating evidence suggests that intratumor heterogeneity likely is the key to understanding treatment failure. However, the extent of intratumor heterogeneity as a result of tumor evolution is still poorly(More)
Mammalian asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP) or legumain is a recently discovered lysosomal cysteine protease that specifically cleaves after asparagine residues. How this unusually specific lysosomal protease is itself activated is not fully understood. Using purified recombinant pro-enzyme, we show that activation is autocatalytic, requires sequential(More)
  • C Watts
  • 1997
Class I and class II MHC molecules bind peptides during their biosynthetic maturation and provide a continuously updated display of intracellular and environmental protein composition, respectively, for scrutiny by T cells. Receptor-mediated endocytosis, phagocytosis, and macropinocytosis all contribute to antigen uptake by class II MHC-positive(More)
BACKGROUND Parkinson's disease is typically treated with oral dopamine replacement therapies; however, long-term treatment leads to motor complications and, occasionally, impulse control disorders caused by intermittent stimulation of dopamine receptors and off-target effects, respectively. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of(More)
Legumain is a cysteine endopeptidase that shows strict specificity for hydrolysis of asparaginyl bonds. The enzyme belongs to peptidase family C13, and is thus unrelated to the better known cysteine peptidases of the papain family, C1 (Rawlings, N. D., and Barrett, A. J. (1994) Methods Enzymol. 244, 461-486). To date, legumain has been described only from(More)
Recent advances in the understanding of cell cycle control by cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases provide a basis for delineating the molecular mechanisms of proliferation control by steroids and the development and progression of hormone-dependent cancers. Cyclin D1 is necessary, rate-limiting and sufficient for G1 progression in breast cancer cells and(More)
Expanded neural precursor cells provide an attractive alternative to primary fetal tissue for cell replacement therapies in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study we transplanted epigenetically propagated human neural precursor cells into a rat model of Huntington's disease. Neural precursors survived transplantation and large numbers differentiated to(More)
BACKGROUND Dendritic cells use constitutive macropinocytosis to capture exogenous antigens for presentation on MHC molecules. Upon exposure to inflammatory stimuli or bacterial products such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), macropinocytosis is dramatically downregulated as part of a developmental programme leading to dendritic cell maturation, migration and(More)