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This article concerns the benefits of presenting abstract data in 3D. Two experiments show that motion cues combined with stereo viewing can substantially increase the size of the graph that can be preceived. The first experiment was designed to provide quantitiative measurements of how much more (or less) can be understood in 3D than in 2D. The 3D display(More)
The sources of lag (the delay between input action and output response) and its effects on human performance are discussed. We measured the effects in a study of target acquisition using the classic Fitts' law paradigm with the addition of four lag conditions. At the highest lag tested (225 ms), movement times and error rates increased by 64% and 214%(More)
A large class of diagrams can be informally characterized as node – link diagrams. Typically nodes represent entities, and links represent relationships between them. The discipline of graph drawing is concerned with methods for drawing abstract versions of such diagrams. At the foundation of the discipline are a set of graph aesthetics (rules for graph(More)
Since humans direct their visual attention by means of eye movements, a device which monitors eye movements should be a natural “pick” device for selecting objects visually present on a monitor. The results from an experimental investigation of an eye tracker as a computer input device are presented. Three different methods were used to select(More)
  • Colin Ware
  • IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
  • 1988
Pseudocoloring for presenting univariate map information on a graphic display system is investigated. The kinds of information available in maps are divided into two classes: metric information denotes the quantity stored at each point on the surface, and form information denotes the shape or structure of the surface. Theoretical principles are proposed to(More)
This paper evaluates three distinct metaphors for exploration and virtual camera control in virtual environments using a six degree of freedom input device. The metaphors are "eyeball in hand", "scene in hand", and "flying vehicle control". These metaphors have been implemented and evaluated using an IRIS workstation and a Polhemus 3Space. The system has(More)
This article reports the results from three experimental studies of reaching behavior in a head-coupled stereo display system with a hand-tracking subsystem for object selection. It is found that lag in the head-tracking system is relatively unimportant in predicting performance, whereas lag in the hand-tracking system is critical. The effect of hand lag(More)
“Fish tank virtual reality” refers to the use of a standard graphics workstation to achieve real-time display of 3D scenes using stereopsis and dynamic head-coupled perspective. Fish tank VR has a number of advantages over head-mounted immersion VR which makes it more practical for many applications. After discussing the characteristics of fish tank VR, we(More)
Times for virtual object rotations reported in the literature are of the order of 10 seconds or more and this is far longer than it takes to manually orient a “real” object, such as a cup. This is a report of a series of experiments designed to investigate the reasons for this difference and to help design interfaces for object manipulation. The(More)
In this paper we describe an empirical investigation of the utility of several perceptual properties of motion in information-dense displays applied to notification. Notification relates to awareness and concerns how dynamic information is communicated from the system to the user. The results show that icons with simple motions, termed moticons, are(More)