Colin W Macdiarmid

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All cells regulate their intracellular zinc levels. In yeast, zinc uptake is mediated by Zrt1p and Zrt2p, which belong to the ZIP family of metal transporters. Under zinc limitation, ZRT1 and ZRT2 transcription is induced by the Zap1p transcriptional activator. We describe here a new component of zinc homeostasis, vacuolar zinc storage, that is also(More)
Ionic aluminum (Al3+) is toxic to plants, microbes, fish, and animals, but the mechanism of its toxicity is unknown. We describe the isolation of two yeast genes (ALR1 and ALR2) which confer increased tolerance to Al3+ and Ga3+ ions when overexpressed while increasing strain sensitivity to Zn2+, Mn2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Ca2+, and La3+ ions. The Alr proteins are(More)
The yeast vacuole plays an important role in zinc homeostasis by storing zinc for later use under deficient conditions, sequestering excess zinc for its detoxification, and buffering rapid changes in intracellular zinc levels. The mechanisms involved in vacuolar zinc sequestration are only poorly characterized. Here we describe the properties of zinc(More)
In this report, we show that zinc is required for endoplasmic reticulum function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Zinc deficiency in this yeast induces the unfolded protein response (UPR), a system normally activated by unfolded ER proteins. Msc2, a member of the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family of metal ion transporters, was previously implicated in(More)
A full-length cDNA (GintZnT1) encoding a putative Zn transporter was isolated from the extraradical mycelium of Glomus intraradices. Based on its sequence analysis, GintZnT1 was classified as a member of the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family of heavy metal transporters. Functional analysis of GintZnT1 was performed by heterologous expression in(More)
CAtion/H(+) eXchangers (CAXs) are integral membrane proteins that transport Ca(2+) or other cations by exchange with protons. While several yeast and plant CAX proteins have been characterized, no functional analysis of a vertebrate CAX homologue has yet been reported. In this study, we further characterize a CAX from yeast, VNX1, and initiate(More)
The cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family of metal ion transporters plays important roles in zinc transport at all phylogenetic levels. In this report, we describe a novel interaction between two members of the CDF family in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One CDF member in yeast, Msc2p, was shown recently to be involved in zinc transport into the endoplasmic(More)
Zinc is an essential nutrient but toxic to cells with overaccumulation. For this reason, intracellular zinc levels are tightly controlled. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Zrc1 and Cot1 proteins have been implicated in the storage and detoxification of excess zinc in the vacuole. Surprisingly, transcription of ZRC1 is induced in zinc-limited cells(More)
Mg homeostasis is critical to eukaryotic cells, but the contribution of Mg transporter activity to homeostasis is not fully understood. In yeast, Mg uptake is primarily mediated by the Alr1 transporter, which also allows low affinity uptake of other divalent cations such as Ni(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+) and Co(2+). Using Ni(2+) uptake to assay Alr1 activity, we(More)
We have established conditions in which soluble Al is toxic to the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The major modifications to a standard synthetic medium were lowering the pH and the concentration of Mg ions. Alterations to the PO4, Ca, or K concentration had little effect on toxicity. Organic acids known to chelate Al reduced its toxicity, suggesting that(More)