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Dietary micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) are widespread, yet their prevalence can be difficult to assess. Here, we estimate MND risks due to inadequate intakes for seven minerals in Africa using food supply and composition data, and consider the potential of food-based and agricultural interventions. Food Balance Sheets (FBSs) for 46 countries were(More)
Selenium is an essential element in human diets but the risk of suboptimal intake increases where food choices are narrow. Here we show that suboptimal dietary intake (i.e. 20-30 µg Se person(-1) d(-1)) is widespread in Malawi, based on a spatial integration of Se concentrations of maize (Zea mays L.) grain and soil surveys for 88 field sites, representing(More)
Dietary mineral deficiencies are widespread in Africa. Our previous studies in Malawi revealed population-level shortfalls in dietary calcium and selenium supply but adequate dietary magnesium (Mg) supply. Here we examine dietary Mg supply throughout Africa. Food supply data from 1961 to 2007 were compiled using Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Food(More)
X-ray Micro Computed Tomography (CT) enables interactions between roots and soil to be visualised without disturbance. This study examined responses of root growth in three Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) cultivars to different levels of soil compaction (1.1 and 1.5 g cm−3). Seedlings were scanned 2, 5 and 12 days after germination (DAG) and the images were(More)
Selenium (Se) is an essential human micronutrient with critical roles in immune functioning and antioxidant defence. Estimates of dietary Se intakes and status are scarce for Africa although crop surveys indicate deficiency is probably widespread in Malawi. Here we show that Se deficiency is likely endemic in Malawi based on the Se status of adults(More)
Although water table depth is commonly regarded as the primary determinant of litter decomposition rate in tropical peatlands, this has rarely been tested experimentally. This study explored the influence of flooding on decomposition of litter from three dominant plant species in a neotropical peatland. The non-flooded treatment reduced the mass remaining(More)
Tropical wetlands are not included in Earth system models, despite being an important source of methane (CH 4) and contributing a large fraction of carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions from land use, land use change, and forestry in the tropics. This review identifies a remarkable lack of data on the carbon balance and gas fluxes from undisturbed tropical(More)
The success of agroforestry in semi-arid areas depends on efficient use of available water and effective strategies to limit tree/crop competition and maximise productivity. On hillsides, planting improved tree fallows on the degraded upper section of bench terraces is a recommended practice to improve soil fertility while cropping continues on the lower(More)
Anthropogenic release of CO2 is an important factor in the continuing rise in mean global temperature. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) offers a promising technology to capture and sequester CO2 in deep geological reservoirs. In view of the possible impact of leakage from CCS systems on vegetation, we examined the effects of elevated soil [CO2] on growth(More)
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