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The C4 photosynthetic pathway uses water more efficiently than the C3 type, yet biogeographical analyses show a decline in C4 species relative to C3 species with decreasing rainfall. To investigate this paradox, the hypothesis that the C4 advantage over C3 photosynthesis is diminished by drought was tested, and the underlying stomatal and metabolic(More)
CAM and C4 photosynthesis are two key plant adaptations that have evolved independently multiple times, and are especially prevalent in particular groups of plants, including the Caryophyllales. We investigate the origin of photosynthetic PEPC, a key enzyme of both the CAM and C4 pathways. We combine phylogenetic analyses of genes encoding PEPC with(More)
1. Grasses using the C 4 photosynthetic pathway dominate today's savanna ecosystems and account for ~20% of terrestrial carbon fixation. However, this dominant status was reached only recently, during a period of C 4 grassland expansion in the Late Miocene and Early Pliocene (4–8 Myr ago). Declining atmospheric CO 2 has long been considered the key driver(More)
The widespread appearance of megaphyll leaves, with their branched veins and planate form, did not occur until the close of the Devonian period at about 360 Myr ago. This happened about 40 Myr after simple leafless vascular plants first colonized the land in the Late Silurian/Early Devonian, but the reason for the slow emergence of this common feature of(More)
C4 photosynthesis affords higher photosynthetic carbon conversion efficiency than C3 photosynthesis and it therefore represents an attractive target for engineering efforts aiming to improve crop productivity. To this end, blueprints are required that reflect C4 metabolism as closely as possible. Such blueprints have been derived from comparative(More)
The evolution of grasses using C4 photosynthesis and their sudden rise to ecological dominance 3 to 8 million years ago is among the most dramatic examples of biome assembly in the geological record. A growing body of work suggests that the patterns and drivers of C4 grassland expansion were considerably more complex than originally assumed. Previous(More)
This paper presents a multi-core SoC architecture for consumer multimedia applications. The comprehensive functionality of such multimedia systems is described using the example of a hybrid TV application. The successful usage of a heterogeneous multi-core SoC platform is presented and it is shown how specific challenges such as inter-processor(More)
C(4) photosynthesis is a complex trait that confers higher productivity under warm and arid conditions. It has evolved more than 60 times via the co-option of genes present in C(3) ancestors followed by alteration of the patterns and levels of expression and adaptive changes in the coding sequences, but the evolutionary path to C(4) photosynthesis is still(More)
Grasses using the C(4) photosynthetic pathway dominate grasslands and savannahs of warm regions, and account for half of the species in this ecologically and economically important plant family. The C(4) pathway increases the potential for high rates of photosynthesis, particularly at high irradiance, and raises water-use efficiency compared with the C(3)(More)
Global climate change is expected to shift regional rainfall patterns, influencing species distributions where they depend on water availability. Comparative studies have demonstrated that C4 grasses inhabit drier habitats than C3 relatives, but that both C3 and C4 photosynthesis are susceptible to drought. However, C4 plants may show advantages in(More)