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The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei produces and secretes profuse quantities of enzymes that act synergistically to degrade cellulase and related biomass components. We partially sequenced over 5100 random T. reesei cDNA clones. Among the sequences whose predicted gene products had significant similarity to known proteins, 12 were identified that(More)
Through a Biomass Refining Consortium for Applied Fundamentals and Innovation among Auburn University, Dartmouth College, Michigan State University, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Purdue University, Texas A&M University, the University of British Columbia, and the University of California at Riverside, leading pretreatment technologies based on(More)
As part of a program to discover improved glycoside hydrolase family 12 (GH 12) endoglucanases, we have studied the biochemical diversity of several GH 12 homologs. The H. schweinitzii Cel12A enzyme differs from the T. reesei Cel12A enzyme by only 14 amino acids (93% sequence identity), but is much less thermally stable. The bacterial Cel12A enzyme from S.(More)
We present the three-dimensional structure of Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase 3 (Cel12A), a small, 218 amino acid residue (24.5 kDa), neutral pI, glycoside hydrolase family 12 cellulase that lacks a cellulose-binding module. The structure has been determined using X-ray crystallography and refined to 1.9 A resolution. The asymmetric unit consists of six(More)
In this review we will describe how we have gathered structural and biochemical information from several homologous cellulases from one class of glycoside hydrolases (GH family 12), and used this information within the framework of a protein-engineering program for the design of new variants of these enzymes. These variants have been characterized to(More)
The substrate specificity of the xyloglucanase Cel74A from Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei) was examined using several polysaccharides and oligosaccharides. Our results revealed that xyloglucan chains are hydrolyzed at substituted Glc residues, in contrast to the action of all known xyloglucan endoglucanases (EC 3.2.1.151). The building block of(More)
Cellulases, glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the degradation of cellulose, are classified as either endoglucanases or cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) based on their architecture and mode of action on the cellulose. CBHs bind the cellulose chain in a more or less closed tunnel and cleave off cellobiose units processively from one end of the cellulosic polymer,(More)
The reversible denaturation by urea of beta-lactamase from Staphylococcus aureus was followed in the presence and absence of ammonium sulphate by circular dichroism studies, difference absorption spectroscopy and measurement of enzyme activity. The multiple unfolding and refolding transitions demonstrate the existence of a thermodynamically stable state of(More)
Incorporation of 4.5 nmol fluorescein isothiocyanate/mg rabbit sarcoplasmic reticulum, or of 7.4 nmol/mg purified ATPase, was sufficient to inhibit the activity completely. These results are not consistent with the suggestion (Pick, U. and Karlish, S.J.D. (1980) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 626, 255-261) that 2 mol ATPase were inhibited by each mole of reagent(More)
As part of a program to discover improved glycoside hydrolase family 12 (GH 12) endoglucanases, we have extended our previous work on the structural and biochemical diversity of GH 12 homologs to include the most stable fungal GH 12 found, Humicola grisea Cel12A. The H. grisea enzyme was much more stable to irreversible thermal denaturation than the(More)