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Plants in nature are often attacked by multiple enemies whose effect on the plant cannot always be predicted based on the outcome of individual attacks. We investigated how two invasive herbivores, the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) (HWA) and the elongate hemlock scale (Fiorinia externa) (EHS), alter host plant quality (measured as amino acid(More)
Here, we tested whether rapid changes in carbohydrate transport and partitioning to storage organs would be induced by jasmonic acid (JA), a plant-produced signal of herbivore attack known to induce resistance. Carbon-11, introduced as (11)CO(2), was used to track real-time carbohydrate transport and partitioning nondestructively in Populus species before(More)
Herbivores can cause numerous changes in primary plant metabolism. Recent studies using radioisotopes, for example, have found that insect herbivores and related cues can induce faster export from leaves and roots and greater partitioning into tissues inaccessible to foraging herbivores. This process, termed induced resource sequestration, is being proposed(More)
We evaluated feeding preference and damage by the slug, Arion subfuscus, on seedlings of two willow species, Salix sericea and S. eriocephala, and their F1 interspecific hybrids. Trays of seedlings were placed in the field and excised leaves were presented to slugs in choice tests. Slugs preferred feeding on and caused the most damage to S. eriocephala(More)
Exotic plants provide a unique opportunity to explore the evolution of defense allocation in plants. Many studies have focused on whether enemy release leads to a change in defense allocation. Little research has focused on induced defenses and on how resource availability in the nonindigenous range might cause evolutionary shifts in defense trait(More)
Members of the Salicaceae often produce phenolic glycosides and condensed tannins. There is much debate on the best method for the preservation of leaf material prior to chemical analysis. Published results indicate freeze-drying, a method commonly used for tannin analysis, may be inappropriate for phenolic glycosides, unless done in a manner to prevent(More)
Changes in root hydraulic resistance in response to alterations in nitrate supply were explored in detail as a potential mechanism that allows plants to respond rapidly to changes in their environment. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus cv. Holiday) plants grown hydroponically with limited nitrate availability (200 micromol l(-1)) served as our model system.(More)
Here, the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis (GDBH) was tested by quantifying temporal variation in the relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), and phenylpropanoid concentrations of two willow species (Salix sericea and Salix eriocephala) across five fertility levels. Initially, RGR increased and total phenylpropanoids declined(More)
Phenolic glycosides and condensed tannins in Salix sericea, S. eriocephala and their F1 hybrids: not all hybrids are created equal Abstract The performance of hybrids depends upon the inheritance and expression of resistance traits. Secondary chemicals are one such resistance trait. In this study, we measured the concentrations of phenolic glycosides and(More)
We investigated geographic patterns of herbivory and resource allocation to defense, growth, and reproduction in an invasive biennial, Alliaria petiolata, to test the hypothesis that escape from herbivory in invasive species permits enhanced growth and lower production of defensive chemicals. We quantified herbivore damage, concentrations of sinigrin, and(More)