• Publications
  • Influence
Half a century of research on the Stroop effect: an integrative review.
The literature on interference in the Stroop Color-Word Task, covering over 50 years and some 400 studies, is organized and reviewed. In so doing, a set of 18 reliable empirical finding is isolatedExpand
  • 4,872
  • 429
  • PDF
Interdimensional interference in the Stroop effect: uncovering the cognitive and neural anatomy of attention
In the classic Stroop effect, naming the color of an incompatible color word (e.g. the word RED printed in green ink; say, 'green') is much slower and more error-prone than is naming the color of aExpand
  • 599
  • 39
  • PDF
The production effect: delineation of a phenomenon.
In 8 recognition experiments, we investigated the production effect-the fact that producing a word aloud during study, relative to simply reading a word silently, improves explicit memory.Expand
  • 228
  • 36
  • PDF
Training and Stroop-like interference: evidence for a continuum of automaticity.
Three experiments varied the extent of practice in an analog of the Stroop color-work task. Each experiment involved four phases: (a) baseline naming of four familiar colors, (b) training inExpand
  • 390
  • 25
  • PDF
The item and list methods of directed forgetting: Test differences and the role of demand characteristics
In directed forgetting, the item method presents instructions to remember or to forget individual items; the list method presents a single mid-list instruction to forget the first half of the list.Expand
  • 205
  • 21
  • PDF
Implicit measures of association in psychopathology research.
Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis I psychopathologyExpand
  • 207
  • 20
  • PDF
I said, you said: The production effect gets personal
  • Colin M. Macleod
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Psychonomic bulletin & review
  • 22 September 2011
Saying a word out loud makes it more memorable than simply reading it silently. This robust finding has been labeled the production effect and has been attributed to the enhanced distinctiveness ofExpand
  • 66
  • 17
  • PDF
Directed forgetting affects both direct and indirect tests of memory.
In two experiments, subjects were instructed either to remember or to forget each word. Following study, two tests were given, one a direct test of memory requiring conscious recollection of theExpand
  • 157
  • 16
  • PDF