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Plants in nature are often attacked by multiple enemies whose effect on the plant cannot always be predicted based on the outcome of individual attacks. We investigated how two invasive herbivores, the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) (HWA) and the elongate hemlock scale (Fiorinia externa) (EHS), alter host plant quality (measured as amino acid(More)
Phenolic glycosides and condensed tannins in Salix sericea, S. eriocephala and their F1 hybrids: not all hybrids are created equal Abstract The performance of hybrids depends upon the inheritance and expression of resistance traits. Secondary chemicals are one such resistance trait. In this study, we measured the concentrations of phenolic glycosides and(More)
Changes in root hydraulic resistance in response to alterations in nitrate supply were explored in detail as a potential mechanism that allows plants to respond rapidly to changes in their environment. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus cv. Holiday) plants grown hydroponically with limited nitrate availability (200 micromol l(-1)) served as our model system.(More)
We describe some recent themes in the nutritional and chemical ecology of herbivores and the importance of a broad pharmacological view of plant nutrients and chemical defenses that we integrate as “Pharm-ecology”. The central role that dose, concentration, and response to plant components (nutrients and secondary metabolites) play in herbivore foraging(More)
Soil warming from global climate change could increase decomposition of fine woody debris (FWD), but debris size and quality may mitigate this effect. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of soil warming on decomposition of fine woody debris of differing size and quality. We placed FWD of two size classes (2 × 20 cm and 4 × 40 cm) and four(More)
Climate change is impacting agro-ecosystems, crops, and farmer livelihoods in communities worldwide. While it is well understood that more frequent and intense climate events in many areas are resulting in a decline in crop yields, the impact on crop quality is less acknowledged, yet it is critical for food systems that benefit both farmers and consumers(More)
Extreme shifts in water availability linked to global climate change are impacting crops worldwide. The present study examines the direct and interactive effects of water availability and pest pressures on tea (Camellia sinensis; Theaceae) growth and functional quality. Manipulative greenhouse experiments were used to measure the effects of variable water(More)
Plants can alter physiological and developmental trajectories in response to environmental cues by means of phenotypic plasticity. While cases of immediate plastic responses to different environments are well studied, phenotypic changes can also be delayed and occur in later life cycle stages. In this study, we investigated latent phenotypic plasticity in(More)
Although sap-feeding insects are known to negatively affect plant growth and physiology, less is known about sap-feeding insects on woody plants. Adelges tsugae (Annand Hemiptera: Adelgidae), the hemlock woolly adelgid, is an invasive sap-feeding insect in eastern North America that feeds on and kills Tsuga canadensis (L. Carrière), eastern hemlock. Newly(More)
The introduction of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) in the eastern United States has caused extensive damage to eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) stands. The presence of other herbivores can affect adelgid density and hemlock health. Here, we report the results of long-term work monitoring hemlock forests in a 7,500 km2 latitudinal transect of(More)