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Commensal and pathogenic microorganisms must resist the deleterious actions of bile in order to survive in the human gastrointestinal tract. Herein we review the current knowledge on the mechanisms by which Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria contend with bile stress. We describe the antimicrobial actions of bile, assess the variations in bile(More)
Bacteriocins are bacterially produced antimicrobial peptides with narrow or broad host ranges. Many bacteriocins are produced by food-grade lactic acid bacteria, a phenomenon which offers food scientists the possibility of directing or preventing the development of specific bacterial species in food. This can be particularly useful in preservation or food(More)
Gram-positive bacteria possess a myriad of acid resistance systems that can help them to overcome the challenge posed by different acidic environments. In this review the most common mechanisms are described: i.e., the use of proton pumps, the protection or repair of macromolecules, cell membrane changes, production of alkali, induction of pathways by(More)
Alterations in intestinal microbiota composition are associated with several chronic conditions, including obesity and inflammatory diseases. The microbiota of older people displays greater inter-individual variation than that of younger adults. Here we show that the faecal microbiota composition from 178 elderly subjects formed groups, correlating with(More)
Alterations in the human intestinal microbiota are linked to conditions including inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and obesity. The microbiota also undergoes substantial changes at the extremes of life, in infants and older people, the ramifications of which are still being explored. We applied pyrosequencing of over 40,000 16S rRNA(More)
The mechanisms by which probiotic strains enhance the health of the host remain largely uncharacterized. Here we demonstrate that Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118, a recently sequenced and genetically tractable probiotic strain of human origin, produces a bacteriocin in vivo that can significantly protect mice against infection with the invasive foodborne(More)
The ability of Listeria monocytogenes to tolerate low-pH environments is of particular importance because the pathogen encounters such environments in vivo, both during passage through the stomach and within the macrophage phagosome. In our study, L. monocytogenes was shown to exhibit a significant adaptive acid tolerance response following a 1-h exposure(More)
Two general strategies exist for the growth and survival of prokaryotes in environments of elevated osmolarity. The 'salt in cytoplasm' approach, which requires extensive structural modifications, is restricted mainly to members of the Halobacteriaceae. All other species have convergently evolved to cope with environments of elevated osmolarity by the(More)
We observed that glutamate greatly enhances the survival of Listeria monocytogenes in gastric fluid, a phenomenon that is directly linked to glutamate decarboxylase activity (GAD). Glutamate-mediated acid tolerance has been associated in other intestinal genera with the GAD system, in which glutamate is internalized and converted to gamma-aminobutyrate(More)