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The repair of tissue damage is a key survival process in all organisms and involves the coordinated activation of several cell types. Cell-cell communication is clearly fundamental to this process, and a great deal is known about extracellular communication within the wound site via cytokines. Here we show that direct cell-cell communication through(More)
OBJECTIVE To review the use of measures of health status in the assessment of benefits in economic evaluation, whether or not the measures were designed for this purpose. METHODS The review was based on a systematic search of the literature. It provides a comprehensive assessment of the evidence where it exists and a balanced overview of opinion(More)
The topological organization of the major rat liver gap junction protein has been examined in intact gap junctions and gap junction-derived single membrane structures. Two methods, low pH and urea at alkaline pH, were used to "transform" or "split" double membrane gap junctions into single membrane structures. Low pH treatment "transforms" rat liver gap(More)
Electrical coupling between heart muscle cells is mediated by specialised regions of sarcolemmal interaction termed gap junctions. In previous work, we have demonstrated that connexin42, a recently identified gap-junctional protein, is present in the specialised conduction tissues of the avian heart. In the present study, the spatial distribution of the(More)
After traumatic CNS injury, a cascade of secondary events expands the initial lesion. The gap-junction protein connexin43 (Cx43), which is transiently up-regulated, has been implicated in the spread of 'bystander' damage. We have used an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (asODN) to suppress Cx43 up-regulation in two rat models of spinal cord injury. Within 24(More)
The fate of gap junctions in dissociated adult myocytes, maintained for up to 22 hours in culture medium, was investigated by semiquantitative analysis of thin sections and by freeze-fracture electron microscopy. Gap junctions in the dissociated myocyte are intact bimembranous structures seen either as invaginated surface-located structures or as annular(More)
Confocal microscopy enables constitutive elements of cells and tissues to be viewed at high resolution and reconstructed in three dimensions, but is constrained by the limited extent of the volumes that can be imaged. We have developed an automated technique that enables serial confocal images to be acquired over large tissue areas and volumes. The(More)
Some vertebrates can navigate over long distances using the Earth's magnetic field, but the sensory system that they use to do so has remained a mystery. Here we describe the key components of a magnetic sense underpinning this navigational ability in a single species, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We report behavioural and electrophysiological(More)
Gap junctions are specialized cell-to-cell contacts that provide direct intercellular communication. In the central nervous system (CNS), gap junction coupling occurs between both neurons and glial cells. One of the most abundant gap junction proteins in the CNS is connexin43 (Cx43). The functional syncytium formed by astrocytes via Cx43 gap junction(More)
BACKGROUND Gap junctions are a determinant of myocardial conduction. Disturbances of gap-junctional content may account for abnormalities of impulse propagation, contributing to the arrhythmic tendency and mechanical inefficiency of ischemic and hypertrophied myocardium. The aim of this study was to characterize gap junction organization in normal human(More)