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Inwardly rectifying potassium channels conduct ions more readily in the inward than the outward direction, an essential property for normal electrical activity. Although voltage-dependent block by internal magnesium ions may underlie inward rectification in some channels, an intrinsic voltage-dependent closure of the channel plays a contributory, or even(More)
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels couple cell metabolism to electrical activity. Phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PIPs) profoundly antagonized ATP inhibition of KATP channels when applied to inside-out membrane patches. It is proposed that membrane-incorporated PIPs can bind to positive charges in the cytoplasmic region of the(More)
This summary article presents an overview of the molecular relationships among the voltage-gated potassium channels and a standard nomenclature for them, which is derived from the IUPHAR Compendium of Voltage-Gated Ion Channels. The complete Compendium, including data tables for each member of the potassium channel family can be found at(More)
The mechanism of inward rectification was examined in cell-attached and inside-out membrane patches from Xenopus oocytes expressing the cloned strong inward rectifier HRK1. Little or no outward current was measured in cell-attached patches. Inward currents reach their maximal value in two steps: an instantaneous phase followed by a time-dependent(More)
A complementary DNA encoding an ATP-regulated potassium channel has been isolated by expression cloning from rat kidney. The predicted 45K protein, which features two potential membrane-spanning helices and a proposed ATP-binding domain, represents a major departure from the basic structural design characteristic of voltage-gated and second messenger-gated(More)
ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels link cellular metabolism to electrical activity in nerve, muscle, and endocrine tissues. They are formed as a functional complex of two unrelated subunits-a member of the Kir inward rectifier potassium channel family, and a sulfonylurea receptor (SUR), a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family, which(More)
K(ATP) channels can be formed from Kir6.2 subunits with or without SUR1. The open-state stability of K(ATP) channels can be increased or reduced by mutations throughout the Kir6.2 subunit, and is increased by application of PIP(2) to the cytoplasmic membrane. Increase of open-state stability is manifested as an increase in the channel open probability in(More)
Inward rectification induced by mono- and diaminoalkane application to inside-out membrane patches was studied in Kir2.1 (IRK1) channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Both monoamines and diamines block Kir2.1 channels, with potency increasing as the alkyl chain length increases (from 2 to 12 methylene groups), indicating a strong hydrophobic interaction(More)
The past three years have seen remarkable progress in research on the molecular basis of inward rectification, with significant implications for basic understanding and pharmacological manipulation of cellular excitability. Expression cloning of the first inward rectifier K channel (Kir) genes provided the necessary break-through that has led to isolation(More)