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A complementary DNA encoding an ATP-regulated potassium channel has been isolated by expression cloning from rat kidney. The predicted 45K protein, which features two potential membrane-spanning helices and a proposed ATP-binding domain, represents a major departure from the basic structural design characteristic of voltage-gated and second messenger-gated(More)
Inwardly rectifying potassium channels conduct ions more readily in the inward than the outward direction, an essential property for normal electrical activity. Although voltage-dependent block by internal magnesium ions may underlie inward rectification in some channels, an intrinsic voltage-dependent closure of the channel plays a contributory, or even(More)
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels couple cell metabolism to electrical activity. Phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PIPs) profoundly antagonized ATP inhibition of KATP channels when applied to inside-out membrane patches. It is proposed that membrane-incorporated PIPs can bind to positive charges in the cytoplasmic region of the(More)
K(ATP) channels can be formed from Kir6.2 subunits with or without SUR1. The open-state stability of K(ATP) channels can be increased or reduced by mutations throughout the Kir6.2 subunit, and is increased by application of PIP(2) to the cytoplasmic membrane. Increase of open-state stability is manifested as an increase in the channel open probability in(More)
The mechanism of inward rectification was examined in cell-attached and inside-out membrane patches from Xenopus oocytes expressing the cloned strong inward rectifier HRK1. Little or no outward current was measured in cell-attached patches. Inward currents reach their maximal value in two steps: an instantaneous phase followed by a time-dependent(More)
Sulfonylureas are a class of drugs widely used to promote insulin secretion in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. These drugs interact with the sulfonylurea receptor of pancreatic beta cells and inhibit the conductance of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent potassium (KATP) channels. Cloning of complementary DNAs for the(More)
ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels link cellular metabolism to electrical activity in nerve, muscle, and endocrine tissues. They are formed as a functional complex of two unrelated subunits-a member of the Kir inward rectifier potassium channel family, and a sulfonylurea receptor (SUR), a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family, which(More)
1. The effect of protein kinase activators on cloned inward rectifier channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes was examined using a two-electrode voltage clamp. PKA activators caused no change in KIR1.1, KIR2.1, or KIR2.3 current. The PKC activators phorbol 12-myristate 14-acetate (PMA) and phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (PDBu) inhibited KIR2.3 currents, but not(More)
This summary article presents an overview of the molecular relationships among the voltage-gated potassium channels and a standard nomenclature for them, which is derived from the IUPHAR Compendium of Voltage-Gated Ion Channels. The complete Compendium, including data tables for each member of the potassium channel family can be found at(More)