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Large-scale N-body simulations play an important role in advancing our understanding of the formation and evolution of large structures in the universe. These computations require a large number of particles, in the order of 10-100 of billions, to realistically model phenomena such as the formation of galaxies. Among these particles, black holes play a(More)
Large-scale N-body simulations play an important role in advancing our understanding of the formation and evolution of large structures in the universe. These computations require a large number of particles, in the order of 10-100 of billions, to realistically model phenomena such as the formation of galaxies. Among these particles, black holes play a(More)
We investigate the properties of haloes, galaxies and black holes to z = 0 in the high-resolution hydrodynamical simulation MassiveBlack-II (MBII) which evolves a cold dark matter cosmology in a comoving volume V box = (100 Mpc h −1) 3. MBII is the highest resolution simulation of this size which includes a self-consistent model for star formation, black(More)
Observations of the most distant bright quasars imply that billion solar mass supermassive black holes (SMBHs) have to be assembled within the first 800 million years. Under our standard galaxy formation scenario such fast growth implies large gas densities providing sustained accretion at critical or supercritical rates onto an initial black hole seed. It(More)
Current methods for lateral force calibration are often time-consuming, expensive, or cause significant wear of the tip. A quick and simple alternative is presented in which the linear relationship between force and voltage is exploited. The technique is independent of the shapes of the sample and cantilever and eliminates common problems, while maintaining(More)
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