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We produced seven coarse-scale, 1-km 2 resolution, spatial data layers for the conterminous United States to support national-level fire planning and risk assessments. Four of these layers were developed to evaluate ecological conditions and risk to ecosystem components: Potential Natural Vegetation Groups, a layer of climax vegetation types representing(More)
—The Fire Effects Model Extension is a new extension to FVS and the PPE that allows users to simulate the effects of fire on a number of indicators, including stand structure and composition, fuel loading, and size and density of snags. In the absence of fire, the model can be used to simulate snag and fuel dynamics resulting from tree growth and mortality(More)
Prostaglandin (PG) D2, the predominant prostanoid released from activated mast cells in humans is initially metabolized by reduction of the C-11 keto function to yield 9 alpha,11 beta-PGF2. In this study the airways effects of 9 alpha,11 beta-PGF2 were compared with those of its epimer 9 alpha,11 alpha-PGF2 (PGF2 alpha) and PGD2. 9 alpha,11 beta-PGF2 was a(More)
Immunologic or calcium-dependent activation of proteolytically dispersed human lung cells containing 5% mast cells causes the release of large amounts of PGD2 and TxB2. In cell purification experiments, only those fractions containing mast cells had the capacity to generate PGD2 and release histamine with IgE-dependent activation. The cells of origin of T X(More)
Prostacyclin (PGI2) is generated in appreciable amounts during allergic reactions in human lung tissue. To define its activity on human airways we have studied the effects of doubling concentrations of inhaled PGI2 and its hydrolysis product 6-oxoprostaglandin F1 alpha (6-oxo-PGF1 alpha) on specific airway conductance (sGaw), maximum expiratory flow at 30%(More)
Although prostaglandin D2 is the most abundant prostanoid generated by human lung mast cells and causes bronchoconstriction in animals, its effects have not been studied in human beings. We have compared the effects of inhaled prostaglandin D2 and prostaglandin F2 alpha on specific airway conductance in seven normal subjects and seven patients with mild(More)