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Quercus petraea and Quercus robur are two closely related oak species that frequently hybridize. We sequenced 70 clones containing the 5.8S and ITS2 regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) from these two species and did not detect a species-specific difference. Surprisingly, three divergent (up to 12.6%) rDNA families were identified in both species, indicating(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Quercus petraea colonized Ireland after the last glaciation from refugia on mainland Europe. Deforestation, however, beginning in Neolithic times, has resulted in small, scattered forest fragments, now covering less than 12,000 ha. METHODS Plastid (three fragments) and microsatellite variation (13 loci) were characterized in seven(More)
The potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida is a serious pest of potato crops. Nematode FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) are one of the most diverse neuropeptide families known, and modulate sensory and motor functions. As neuromuscular function is a well-established target for parasite control, parasitic nematode FLP signaling has significant potential in(More)
This study presents data demonstrating the presence of FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) in potato cyst nematodes (PCN). Five transcripts of FaRP encoding genes, designated gpflp-1 to gpflp-5, were characterised using RACE. In terms of ORFs, gpflp-1 was 444 base pairs (bp) long and coded for four copies of the FaRP, PF3 (KSAYMRFamide) whilst gpflp-2 was(More)
The ITS region from a wide taxonomic range of nematodes, including secernentean and adenophorean taxa, and free-living, entomopathogenic, and plant-parasitic species, was evaluated as a taxonomic marker. Size of the amplified product aided in the initial determination of group membership, and also suggested groups that may require taxonomic reevaluation.(More)
FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) are a diverse group of neuropeptides that are expressed abundantly in nematodes. They exert potent physiological effects on locomotory, feeding and reproductive musculature and also act as neuromodulators. However, little is known about the specific expression patterns and functions of individual peptides. The current study(More)
While RNA interference (RNAi) has been deployed to facilitate gene function studies in diverse helminths, parasitic nematodes appear variably susceptible. To test if this is due to inter-species differences in RNAi effector complements, we performed a primary sequence similarity survey for orthologs of 77 Caenorhabditis elegans RNAi pathway proteins in 13(More)
The analysis of gene function through RNA interference (RNAi)-based reverse genetics in plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) remains inexplicably reliant on the use of long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) silencing triggers; a practice inherently disadvantageous due to the introduction of superfluous dsRNA sequence, increasing chances of aberrant or off-target gene(More)
Over the last decade the need for new strategies and compounds to control parasitic helminths has become increasingly urgent. The neuromuscular systems of these worms have been espoused as potential sources of target molecules for new drugs which may address this need. One facet of helminth neuromuscular biology which has garnered considerable research(More)