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The mammalian cerebral cortex is innervated by a large number of corticocortical connections. The number of connections makes it difficult to understand the organization of the cortical network. Nonetheless, conclusions about the organization of cortical systems drawn from examining connectional data have often been made in a speculative and informal(More)
We labeled axonal projections using carbocyanine dyes in the developing rat brain to study cellular interactions that might underlie the establishment of thalamocortical connectivity. By embryonic day 14 (E14), groups of neurons in the ventral diencephalon and the primitive internal capsule have established projections to the dorsal thalamus, and thalamic(More)
In 1970 the Boulder Committee described the basic principles of the development of the CNS, derived from observations on the human embryonic cerebrum. Since then, numerous studies have significantly advanced our knowledge of the timing, sequence and complexity of developmental events, and revealed important inter-species differences. We review current data(More)
Previous work has established two structure/function correlations for pyramidal neurons of layer 5 of the primary visual cortex of the rat. First, cells projecting to the superior colliculus have thick apical dendrites with a florid terminal arborization in layer 1, whereas those projecting to the visual cortex of the opposite hemisphere have thinner apical(More)
The effects of stimuli falling outside the 'classical receptive field' and their influence on the orientation selectivity of cells in the cat primary visual cortex are still matters of debate. Here we examine the variety of effects of such peripheral stimuli on responses to stimuli limited to the receptive field. We first determined the extent of the(More)
This paper describes the early morphological and physiological development of pyramidal neurons in layer 5 of the rat visual cortex in relation to the targets chosen by their axons. Cells were prelabeled by retrograde transport from the superior colliculus or the contralateral visual cortex and intracellularly injected either in fixed slices or after(More)
An adaptation method was used to determine the specificity of orientation-selective channels in the human visual system at different retinal eccentricities (up to 16 deg) in both hemifields of each eye. For a vertical test grating, the elevation in contrast threshold produced by adapting to a high-contrast grating of the same spatial frequency but variable(More)
In an attempt to demonstrate a physiological basis for the alternating suppression of perception when the two eyes view very different contours (binocular rivalry), we studied the responses of neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and area 17 of cats for drifting gratings of different orientation, spatial frequency and contrast in the two eyes.(More)
This study deals with the effect of stimulus contrast, between 1.3% and 96%, on the visual evoked potentials (VEPs) for onset of motion and for pattern reversal of checkerboard stimuli. The VEPs for pattern reversal and for the onset of motion both contain an initial positive peak (P1; peak latency about 120 msec) followed by a later negative peak (N2; peak(More)
Neurons in the cat primary visual cortex are selective for particular contour orientations but their responsiveness can vary under certain conditions. After prolonged stimulation (adaptation), the contrast sensitivity of cortical cells is reduced and the 'gain' (the strength of response as a function of contrast) falls. The response to an optimal contour is(More)