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HIV proteinase inhibitors reduce the levels of Leishmania parasites in vivo and in vitro, but their biochemical target is unknown. We have identified an ortholog of the yeast Ddi1 protein as the only member of the aspartic proteinase family in Leishmania parasites, and in this study we investigate this protein as a potential target for the drugs. To date,(More)
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a Gram positive, spore-forming bacterium that synthesizes parasporal crystalline inclusions containing Cry and Cyt proteins, some of which are toxic against a wide range of insect orders, nematodes and human-cancer cells. These toxins have been successfully used as bioinsecticides against caterpillars, beetles, and flies,(More)
This study investigated the modulation of hindlimb reflex excitability after transection of the spinal cord in adult rats. After transection, the H-reflex exhibited decreased depression at high stimulation frequencies compared to intact animals. Groups of animals which received a spinal cord transection followed by either an exercise regimen for the(More)
The authors present a case of an intraventricular 14-cm fetus in a 6-week-old infant who presented with enlarging head size. The entire intracranial fetus, with recognizable limbs, trunk, head, and exomphalos, was removed totally from the lateral and third ventricles, with excellent recovery in the patient, who is now 18 months old. The cytogenetical and(More)
Highly pathogenic strains of Bacillus sphaericus produce the mosquitocidal Bin proteins, but resistance to this toxin can be produced under laboratory and field conditions. Analysis of strains able to overcome this resistance revealed the presence of a previously undescribed type of two-component toxin. One subunit, Cry48Aa1, is related to the 3-domain(More)
Two mosquitocidal toxins (Mtx) of Bacillus sphaericus, which are produced during vegetative growth, were investigated for their potential to increase toxicity and reduce the expression of insecticide resistance through their interactions with other mosquitocidal proteins. Mtx-1 and Mtx-2 were fused with glutathione S-transferase and produced in Escherichia(More)
Exposure to atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM), even at low ambient concentrations, has clearly been linked to increases in mortality and morbidity. A 10- micro g m(-3) increase in PM10 (PM < 10 micro m) has been found to produce a 0.5% increase in daily mortality. The mechanism of action is a source of debate, although recent attention has focused on(More)
Spanish influenza pandemic swept the globe in the autumn and winter of 1918-19, and resulted in the deaths of approximately 40 million people. Clinically, epidemiologically , and pathologically, the disease was remarkably uniform, which suggests that similar viruses were causing disease around the world. To assess the homo-geneity of the 1918 pandemic(More)
The major biological pesticide for the control of insect infestations of crops, Bacillus thuringiensis was found to be present naturally within cotton plants from fields that had never been treated with commercial formulations of this bacterium. The ability of B. thuringiensis to colonize plants as an endophyte was further established by the introduction of(More)