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The mechanisms that give rise to ocular dominance columns (ODCs) during development are controversial. Early experiments indicated a key role for retinal activity in ODC formation. However, later studies showed that in those early experiments, the retinal activity perturbation was initiated after ODCs had already formed. Moreover, recent studies concluded(More)
Epibatidine (EPI), a potent cholinergic agonist, disrupts acetylcholine-dependent spontaneous retinal activity. Early patch-clamp recordings in juvenile ferrets suggested that EPI blocks all retinal ganglion cell (RGC) action potentials when applied to the retina. In contrast, recent experiments on the developing mouse that relied on multielectrode array(More)
Cocaine abusers may experience drug craving upon exposure to environmental contexts where cocaine was experienced. The dorsal hippocampus (DHC) is important for contextual conditioning, therefore the authors examined the specific role of the DHC in cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP). Muscimol was used to temporarily inhibit the DHC and was infused(More)
BACKGROUND Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer results in a large number of unnecessary prostate biopsies. There is a need for specific molecular markers that can be used in combination with PSA to improve the specificity of PSA screening. We examined GADD45a methylation in blood DNA as a molecular marker for prostate cancer(More)
We describe an engineered family of highly antigenic molecules based on GFP-like fluorescent proteins. These molecules contain numerous copies of peptide epitopes and simultaneously bind IgG antibodies at each location. These 'spaghetti monster' fluorescent proteins (smFPs) distributed well in neurons, notably into small dendrites, spines and axons. smFP(More)
Eye-specific projections to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) serve as a model for exploring how precise patterns of circuitry form during development in the mammalian central nervous system. Using a combination of dual-label anterograde retinogeniculate tracing and Nissl-staining, we studied the patterns of eye-specific afferents and cellular(More)
Spontaneous retinal activity (SRA) is important during eye-specific segregation within the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), but the feature(s) of activity critical for retinogeniculate refinement are controversial. Pharmacologically or genetically manipulating cholinergic signaling during SRA perturbs correlated retinal ganglion cell (RGC) spiking(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the reliability of testing strength in children with juvenile arthritis (JA), and to determine the relationship between strength and function. METHODS Children with JA were tested for grip and pinch strength (n = 32). Isometric force produced by hip abductors and knee extensors was tested with a hand-held dynamometer (n = 29). Two(More)
In the adult visual system, functionally distinct retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) within each eye project to discrete targets in the brain. In the ferret, RGCs encoding light increments or decrements project to independent On and Off sublaminae within each eye-specific layer of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). Here we report a manipulation of(More)
As a basic functional unit in neural circuits, each neuron integrates input signals from hundreds to thousands of synapses. Knowledge of the synaptic input fields of individual neurons, including the identity, strength, and location of each synapse, is essential for understanding how neurons compute. Here, we developed a volumetric super-resolution(More)