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I n proposing the ecosystem as an organizational framework , Tansley (1935) explicitly included the effects of humans. When asking, " Is man part of 'nature' or not? " , Tansley concluded that " human activity finds its proper place in ecology ". Nowhere is the human–nature interface more unmistakable than in urban ecosystems, and urban ecology has quickly(More)
1. The formation of groups is a fundamental aspect of social organization, but there are still many questions regarding how social structure emerges from individuals making non-random associations. 2. Although food distribution and individual phenotypic traits are known to separately influence social organization, this is the first study, to our knowledge,(More)
Dominance hierarchies pervade animal societies. Within a static social environment, in which group size and composition are unchanged, an individual's hierarchy rank results from intrinsic (e.g. body size) and extrinsic (e.g. previous experiences) factors. Little is known, however, about how dominance relationships are formed and maintained when group size(More)
The evolutionary pathway to obligate scavenging in Gyps vultures remains unclear. We propose that communal roosting plays a central role in setting up the information transfer network critical for obligate scavengers in ephemeral environments and that the formation of a flotilla-like foraging group is a likely strategy for foraging Gyps vultures. Using a(More)
The punishment of social misconduct is a powerful mechanism for stabilizing high levels of cooperation among unrelated individuals. It is regularly assumed that humans have a universal disposition to punish social norm violators, which is sometimes labelled "universal structure of human morality" or "pure aversion to social betrayal". Here we present(More)
Social animals are capable of enhancing their awareness by paying attention to their neighbors, and prey found in groups can also confuse their predators. Both sides of these sensory benefits have long been appreciated, yet less is known of how the perception of events from the perspectives of both prey and predator can interact to influence their(More)
The goal of this 2 unit tutorial is to introduce students to the quantitative and analytical tools required to conduct analysis of and research into and problem-solving of sustainability issues and technologies, focused on problems in the built environment. The tutorial consists of 70 minutes of classroom instruction each week, plus an equivalent amount of(More)
In most cases authors are permitted to post their version of the article (e.g. in Word or Tex form) to their personal website or institutional repository. Authors requiring further information regarding Elsevier's archiving and manuscript policies are encouraged to visit: Keywords: ant behaviour assay context-dependent aggression Formica interspecific(More)
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