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The study of multiple indices of diffusion, including axial (DA), radial (DR) and mean diffusion (MD), as well as fractional anisotropy (FA), enables WM damage in Alzheimer's disease (AD) to be assessed in detail. Here, tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were performed on scans of 40 healthy elders, 19 non-amnestic MCI (MCIna) subjects, 14 amnestic MCI(More)
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are among the most abundant symbionts of plants, improving plant productivity and diversity. They are thought to mostly grow vegetatively, a trait assumed to limit adaptability. However, AMF can also harbor genetically different nuclei (nucleotypes). It has been shown that one AMF can produce genotypically novel offspring(More)
Few studies have looked at the potential of using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in conjunction with machine learning algorithms in order to automate the classification of healthy older subjects and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Here we apply DTI to 40 healthy older subjects and 33 MCI subjects in order to derive values for multiple indices(More)
White matter (WM) degeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may be a key indicator of early damage in AD. Here, we analyzed WM diffusion tensor data using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics in conjunction with mixed-effects models. Four indices of diffusion were assessed in 61 healthy control, 19 non-amnestic MCIs, 14 amnestic(More)
The evolutionary pathway to obligate scavenging in Gyps vultures remains unclear. We propose that communal roosting plays a central role in setting up the information transfer network critical for obligate scavengers in ephemeral environments and that the formation of a flotilla-like foraging group is a likely strategy for foraging Gyps vultures. Using a(More)
I n proposing the ecosystem as an organizational framework , Tansley (1935) explicitly included the effects of humans. When asking, " Is man part of 'nature' or not? " , Tansley concluded that " human activity finds its proper place in ecology ". Nowhere is the human–nature interface more unmistakable than in urban ecosystems, and urban ecology has quickly(More)
The E4 allele of the ApoE gene has consistently been shown to be related to an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The E4 allele is also associated with functional and structural grey matter (GM) changes in healthy young, middle-aged and older subjects. Here, we assess volumes of deep grey matter structures of 22 healthy younger ApoE4 carriers and(More)
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms frequently occur in subjects with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While there is evidence that both ADHD and ASD have differential structural correlates, no study to date has investigated these structural correlates within a framework that robustly accounts for the phenotypic overlap between the two(More)
The relationship between numerical advantage and competitive ability is a fundamental component in contests between groups of social animals. An individual's ability to correctly assess the numerical state of its group is of vital importance. In addition to numerical dominance, the group's fighting ability also plays an important role in competitive(More)