Cody Phillips

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PURPOSE We confirm the single site observation of decreased sialylation and abnormal glycosylation of Tamm-Horsfall protein in patients with interstitial cystitis compared to control subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS Urine samples from 41 controls and 48 patients with interstitial cystitis from a total of 5 North American sites were obtained in blinded(More)
Microorganisms frequently colonize the nectar of angiosperm species. Though capable of altering a suite of traits important for pollinator attraction, few studies exist that test the degree to which they mediate pollinator foraging behavior. The objective of our study was to fill this gap by assessing the abundance and diversity of yeasts associated with(More)
This paper explores the obstacles associated with designing video game levels for the purpose of objectively measuring flow. We sought to create three video game levels capable of inducing a flow state, an overload state (low-flow), and a boredom state (low-flow). A pilot study, in which participants self-reported levels of flow after playing all three game(More)
This research has been conducted to ascertain the validity of existing videogame reward categorisations. An overview of current videogame reward types is provided and the need for further research in the area of videogame reward systems is identified. Possible limitations of the primary existing reward taxonomy are identified. We propose a definition of(More)
The aim of our research is to iteratively refine and begin validating a proposed videogame reward typology and its associated definitions. A mixed methods approach has been taken so as to best evaluate and refine the taxonomy. The views of an expert focus group have been explored and considered. Separately, a review of the videogame rewards observed within(More)
As video games become increasingly engaging, user experience designers have begun to directly translate game elements to non-game contexts in order to create more engaging and persuading experiences. The terms <i>gamification</i> and <i>gameful design</i>, have been coined to describe this process, and over the last five years a prominent industry has been(More)