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Mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in the hippocampus display an important role in the control of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, mediating the "proactive"-feedback of glucocorticoids. Fludrocortisone (FC), a potent MR agonist, has been shown to decrease HPA activity through a mechanism placed at hippocampal level. In order to clarify the effects(More)
This clinical review will summarize the available data regarding the role of mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis control in physiological and pathological conditions and in the memory processes involved in the control and appraisal of a stress event. MRs are predominantly expressed in the limbic structures,(More)
Treatment options for recurrent or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) refractory to radioactive iodine (RAI) are inadequate. Multitargeted kinase inhibitors have recently shown promising results in phase 2-3 studies. This retrospective study aimed to document our clinical experience on the effects of sorafenib in the setting of daily clinical(More)
The aim of this work is to assess if cumulative dose (CD) and dose intensity (DI) of everolimus may affect survival of advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) patients. One hundred and sixteen patients (62 males and 54 females, median age 55 years) with advanced PNETs were treated with everolimus for ≥3 months. According to a Receiver operating(More)
In recent years, immunotherapy has produced encouraging results in a rapidly increasing number of solid tumors. The responsiveness of bladder cancer to immunotherapy was first established in nonmuscle invasive disease in 1976 with intravesical instillations of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Very recently immune checkpoint inhibitors demonstrated good(More)
The purpose of this study is to verify whether acute pre-treatment with alprazolam (ALP), a benzodiazepine that inhibits HPA secretion in normal subjects, could better characterize patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS) than the 1-mg dexamethasone test (DST). In 22 patients with SCS, 10 with overt Cushing's syndrome (CS), 11 with non-functioning(More)
Adrenal failure secondary to hypothalamic-pituitary disease is a common although underestimated and underdiagnosed condition, with serious consequences. Corticotropin deficiency can be isolated or more frequently occur in association with other pituitary hormones deficiencies. The most frequent endogenous cause of secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI) is a(More)
OBJECTIVE Cushing Syndrome (CS) is implicated by increased cardiovascular risk (CVR) leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Oxidative stress (OS) and platelet activation (PA) are associated with increased CVR. However, scarce data of OS in CS exist. Our objective was to determine the oxidant-antioxidant balance in CS. DESIGN Fourteen patients with(More)
BACKGROUND The association between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sleep is well described. It is also known that HPA axis disturbances have an effect on sleep. In fact, patients affected by Cushing's syndrome (CS) often complain about poor sleep quality. Our aim was to evaluate objective sleep quality and duration in patients with(More)
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