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INTRODUCTION We propose that the increase in TNF-alpha and IL-6 in the brain in idiopathic parkinsonism is in response to a peripheral immune/ inflammatory process, so ubiquitous as to be responsible for the resemblance between ageing and parkinsonism. METHODS Circulating cytokine was measured in 78 subjects with idiopathic parkinsonism and 140 without,(More)
1. We have used gait analysis to investigate the efficacy of maintenance therapy with a levodopa/carbidopa combination in patients with idiopathic Parkinsonism, who do not have overt fluctuations in control in relation to administration of medication. 2. Fourteen patients (aged 64 to 88 years) receiving maintenance therapy with levodopa and carbidopa(More)
Work on the causation of idiopathic parkinsonism is limited by relying on gross clinical definition and lack of studies in the old. A prognostic index for parkinsonism, based on hypo/bradykinesia of gait, had considerably higher values in spouses of 20 aged suffers, who had been cohabiting for about half a century, than in 40 controls. Postural abnormality,(More)
In 144 healthy, active, asymptomatic volunteers (aged 30-88 years), age explained 33% of the variance in free walking speed. This could not be ascribed simply to differences in physique at maturity, since height had a more important effect on speed (p less than 0.0001) than did leg length (p less than 0.01). Multiple linear regression was used to fit models(More)
We challenge the concept of idiopathic parkinsonism (IP) as inevitably progressive neurodegeneration, proposing a natural history of sequential microbial insults with predisposing host response. Proof-of-principle that infection can contribute to IP was provided by case studies and a placebo-controlled efficacy study of Helicobacter eradication. "Malignant"(More)
1. Stride length is highly relevant to mobility and is sensitive to the effects of levodopa in Parkinsonism. Its selection as the primary outcome criterion allowed comparison of two levodopa/decarboxylase inhibitor formulations using a small number of subjects. 2. It is also desirable to improve stability. An instrumental method, based on infrared(More)
BACKGROUND We examine the effect of eradicating Helicobacter in idiopathic parkinsonism (IP). Marked deterioration, where eradication-therapy failed, prompted an interim report in the first 20 probands to reach de-blinding. The null-hypothesis, "eradication has no effect on principal outcome, mean stride length at free-walking speed," was rejected. We(More)
INTRODUCTION We propose an active pathogenic mechanism, involving circulating cortisol, in parkinsonism. MATERIALS AND METHODS Serum cortisol was measured in 96 subjects with idiopathic parkinsonism, 170 without, and in 17 spouses and 36 siblings of elderly sufferers with double the number of controls, all obeying inclusion/exclusion criteria. RESULTS(More)