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The deterioration of the mechanical properties of carious dentine was assumed to be associated with the decrease in mineral content due to the carious process. This study aimed to compare the mechanical properties of carious dentine studied by an ultra-micro-indentation-system (UMIS) and the mineral content determined using backscattered scanning electron(More)
Backscattered electron-scanning electron microscope (BSE-SEM) imaging has been recommended as a reliable tool to quantify the mineralisation state of calcified tissues and is commonly used in bone studies. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of BSE imaging to quantitatively analyse the mineral content of sound and carious dentine. Eight primary(More)
Line shapes of atomic lines and soft x-ray emission bands measured with a wavelength dispersive spectrometer (WDS) with the Electron Probe Micro Analyzer (EPMA) are reviewed. Least square fitting to pseudo-Voigt profiles of the digitally measured spectra are used to account for the presence of non-diagram features (high and low energy satellites) and(More)
Human lymphoid cells were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to see if a correlation existed between surface morphologic features and the presence of various surface markers and receptors. When viewed by SEM thymocytes appeared as smooth-surfaced cells with few surface microvilli; peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) on the other hand were(More)
A simple method is described to determine the effective gas path length when incident electrons scatter in the gas above the specimen. This method is based on the measurement of a characteristic x-ray line emitted from a region close to the incident beam. From various experimental measurements performed on various microscopes, it is shown that the effective(More)
In the preparation of microdroplets of biological fluids for X-ray microanalysis, we have found that incorporation of a macromolecular solute, dextran, to a final concentration of 1.5-2.5% retards crystal formation and produces sufficiently uniform deposits on thin films to allow droplets to be analysed without prior freeze-drying. Analyses have been(More)
The amino-acid sequence and three-dimensional structure of a calcium-binding protein prepared from carp muscle has been determined. This protein, designated carp-muscle calcium-binding protein B, is one of three closely related parvalbumins found in this tissue. The electron density map, calculated by heavyatom substitution crystallographic methods to 2.0-A(More)