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Investigation of events committing cells to death revealed that a concealed NH2-terminal epitope of the pro-apoptotic protein Bak became exposed in vivo before apoptosis. This occurred after treatment of human Jurkat or CEM-C7A T-lymphoma cells with the mechanistically disparate agents staurosporine, etoposide or dexamethasone. The rapid, up to 10-fold(More)
Activation of intact human neutrophils by fMLP stimulates phospholipase D (PLD) by an unknown signaling pathway. The small GTPase, ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF), and Rho proteins regulate the activity of PLD1 directly. Cell permeabilization with streptolysin O leads to loss of cytosolic proteins including ARF but not Rho proteins from the human neutrophils.(More)
Phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 4,5-bisphosphate is involved in many aspects of membrane traffic, but the regulation of its synthesis is only partially understood. Golgi membranes contain PI 4-kinase activity and a pool of phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP), which is further increased by ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1). COS7 cells were transfected with(More)
The tip link protein protocadherin 15 (PCDH15) is a central component of the mechanotransduction complex in auditory and vestibular hair cells. PCDH15 is hypothesized to relay external forces to the mechanically gated channel located near its cytoplasmic C terminus. How PCDH15 is coupled to the transduction machinery is not clear. Using a membrane-based(More)
Phosphatidylinositol transfer protein alpha (PITPalpha) selectively transports and promotes exchange of phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) between lipid bilayers. In higher eukaryotes PITPalpha is required for cellular functions such as phospholipase C-mediated signaling, regulated exocytosis, and secretory vesicle formation. We have(More)
Phospholipase D (PLD) activity in crude or solubilized membranes from mammalian tissues is difficult to detect with the current assay techniques, unless a high radioactive concentration of substrate and/or long incubation times are employed. Generally, the enzyme has to be extracted and partially purified on one column before easy detection of activity.(More)
Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P(2)) is required both as a substrate for the generation of lipid-derived second messengers as well as an intact lipid for many aspects of cell signaling, endo- and exocytosis, and reorganization of the cytoskeleton. ADP ribosylation factor (ARF) proteins regulate PI(4,5)P(2) synthesis, and here we have examined(More)
ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF), a small GTPase required for vesicle formation, has been identified as an activator of phospholipase D (PLD), thus implying that PLD is localized at intracellular organelles. HL60 cells were prelabelled with [14C]acetate for 72 h and, after disruption, fractionated on a linear sucrose gradient. ARF1-regulated PLD activity in(More)
It is now well-established that phospholipase D is transiently stimulated upon activation by G-protein-coupled and receptor tyrosine kinase cell surface receptors in mammalian cells. Over the last 5 years, a tremendous effort has gone to identify the major intracellular regulators of mammalian phospholipase D and to the cloning of two mammalian(More)