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The functions of many open reading frames (ORFs) identified in genome-sequencing projects are unknown. New, whole-genome approaches are required to systematically determine their function. A total of 6925 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were constructed, by a high-throughput strategy, each with a precise deletion of one of 2026 ORFs (more than one-third of(More)
Genome-wide transcript profiling was used to monitor signal transduction during yeast pheromone response. Genetic manipulations allowed analysis of changes in gene expression underlying pheromone signaling, cell cycle control, and polarized morphogenesis. A two-dimensional hierarchical clustered matrix, covering 383 of the most highly regulated genes, was(More)
Expression profiling using DNA microarrays holds great promise for a variety of research applications, including the systematic characterization of genes discovered by sequencing projects. To demonstrate the general usefulness of this approach, we recently obtained expression profiles for nearly 300 Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion mutants. Approximately(More)
Many viruses have membrane glycoproteins that are activated at cleavage sites containing multiple arginine and lysine residues by cellular proteases so far not identified. The proteases responsible for cleavage of the hemagglutinin of fowl plague virus, a prototype of these glycoproteins, has now been isolated from Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells. The(More)
ATR, a phosphatidylinositol kinase-related protein homologous to ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), is important for the survival of human cells following many forms of DNA damage. Expression of a kinase-inactive allele of ATR (ATRkd) in human fibroblasts causes increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation (IR), cis-platinum and methyl methanesulfonate,(More)
Carrier-mediated transporters play a critical role in xenobiotic disposition and transporter research is complicated by species differences and their selective tissue expression. The purpose of this study was to generate a comprehensive data set of xenobiotic transporter gene expression profiles in humans and the pre-clinical species mouse, rat, beagle dog(More)
Atomic force microscopy has been utilized to probe, at a molecular level, the interaction between purified pig gastric mucin (PGM) and a mucoadhesive cationic polymer, chitosan (sea cure 210+), with a low degree (approx. 11%) of acetylation. Images were produced detailing the structures of both PGM and chitosan in 0.1 M acetate buffer (pH 4.5), followed by(More)
The discovery of anticancer drugs is now driven by the numerous molecular alterations identified in tumor cells over the past decade. To exploit these alterations, it is necessary to understand how they define a molecular context that allows increased sensitivity to particular compounds. Traditional genetic approaches together with the new wealth of genomic(More)
Genetic selections were used to find peptides that inhibit biological pathways in budding yeast. The peptides were presented inside cells as peptamers, surface loops on a highly expressed and biologically inert carrier protein, a catalytically inactive derivative of staphylococcal nuclease. Peptamers that inhibited the pheromone signaling pathway,(More)
Controlling receptor-mediated interactions between cells and template surfaces is a central principle in many tissue engineering procedures (1-3). Biomaterial surfaces engineered to present cell adhesion ligands undergo integrin-mediated molecular interactions with cells (1, 4, 5), stimulating cell spreading, and differentiation (6-8). This provides a(More)