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We undertook a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) of Alzheimer's disease (AD) involving over 16,000 individuals, the most powerful AD GWAS to date. In stage 1 (3,941 cases and 7,848 controls), we replicated the established association with the apolipoprotein E (APOE) locus (most significant SNP, rs2075650, P = 1.8 x 10(-157)) and observed(More)
Amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) has a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). Immunization with Abeta in a transgenic mouse model of AD reduces both age-related accumulation of Abeta in the brain and associated cognitive impairment. Here we present the first analysis of human neuropathology after immunization with Abeta (AN-1792). Comparison(More)
Microglia, the resident macrophages of the CNS, are exquisitely sensitive to brain injury and disease, altering their morphology and phenotype to adopt a so-called activated state in response to pathophysiological brain insults. Morphologically activated microglia, like other tissue macrophages, exist as many different phenotypes, depending on the nature of(More)
BACKGROUND Immunisation of patients with Alzheimer's disease with full-length amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta(42)) can clear amyloid plaques from the brain. Our aim was to assess the relation between Abeta(42) immune response, degree of plaque removal, and long-term clinical outcomes. METHODS In June, 2003, consent for long-term clinical follow-up,(More)
Neuropathologic examination of 3 patients with Alzheimer disease in the Elan Pharmaceuticals trial using antibodies specific for different Abeta species showed in one case, 4 months after the immunization, evidence of a stage of active plaque clearance with "moth-eaten" plaques and abundant Abeta phagocytosis by microglia. At 1 to 2 years after(More)
BACKGROUND Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) needs to be distinguished from other types of dementia because of important differences in patient management and outcome. Current clinically based diagnostic criteria for DLB have limited accuracy. Severe nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration occurs in DLB, but not in Alzheimer's disease or most other dementia(More)
AM contributed towards clinical sample collection, ascertainment, diagnosis and preparation of samples from the '610 group' from the stage 1 'discovery sample' and in some cases also provided stage 2 'follow up' samples. RA and PH were responsible for the coordination, collection, transit and selection of samples for genotyping from the '610 group'. RG(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis is not restricted to the neuronal compartment, but includes strong interactions with immunological mechanisms in the brain. Misfolded and aggregated proteins bind to pattern recognition receptors on microglia and astroglia, and trigger an innate immune response characterised by release of(More)
OBJECTIVE The literature reports considerable variation in the rates of psychiatric morbidity for patients with dementia with Lewy bodies. The authors intended to clarify the frequency of psychiatric morbidity in dementia with Lewy bodies and how it differs from probable Alzheimer's disease. METHOD The study incorporated two groups--a clinical case(More)