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BACKGROUND Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD) is a frequently occurring healthcare-associated infection, which is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality amongst elderly patients in healthcare facilities. Environmental contamination is known to play an important contributory role in the spread of CDAD and it is suspected that(More)
Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease that is closely associated with poverty, with transmission occurring in situations where infected persons are in close contact with others in confined spaces. While it is well recognised that overcrowding increases the risk of transmission, this increased risk has not been quantified and the relationship between overcrowding(More)
BACKGROUND Although the merits of ventilating operating theatres and isolation rooms are well known, the clinical benefits derived from ventilating hospital wards and patient rooms are unclear. This is because relatively little research work has been done in the ventilation of these areas compared with that done in operating theatres and isolation rooms.(More)
BACKGROUND To determine whether or not jugular venous reflux (JVR) is associated with structural brain parenchyma changes in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS 16 AD patients (mean (SD): 81.9 (5.8) years), 33 MCI patients (mean (SD): 81.4 (6.1) years) and 18 healthy elderly controls (mean (SD): 81.5(More)
BACKGROUND The potential pathogenesis between the presence and severity of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) and its relation to clinical and imaging outcomes in brain parenchyma of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients has not yet been elucidated. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between CCSVI, and altered brain(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the sensitivity and specificity of decreased venous vasculature visibility (VVV) on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) venography in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients versus controls, and to compare this with assessment of whole brain atrophy. METHODS Forty MS patients and 22 controls without known central nervous system (CNS)(More)
To determine effect of negative air ions on colonisation/infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Acinetobacter species in an intensive care unit. Prospective single-centre cross-over study in an adult general intensive care unit. 201 patients whose stay on the unit exceeded 48 hour's duration. Six negative air ionisers were(More)
PURPOSE To investigate characteristics of cine phase contrast-calculated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and velocity measures in patients with relapsing-remitting (RR) multiple sclerosis (MS) receiving standard medical treatment who had been diagnosed with chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) and underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty(More)
BACKGROUND Good hand hygiene has for many years been considered to be the most important measure that can be applied to prevent the spread of healthcare-associated infection (HAI). Continuous emphasis on this intervention has lead to the widespread opinion that HAI rates can be greatly reduced by increased hand hygiene compliance alone. However, this(More)
BACKGROUND Direct contact between health care staff and patients is generally considered to be the primary route by which most exogenously-acquired infections spread within and between wards. Handwashing is therefore perceived to be the single most important infection control measure that can be adopted, with the continuing high infection rates generally(More)