James S Maxwell7
Ellen M Berends4
Kai M Schreiber3
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We have investigated the potential stages of visual processing at which adaptation may occur to a slanted surface produced by horizontal magnification. Predictions of three hypotheses were tested utilizing a property of depth from binocular disparity, namely that slant scales with distance. If adaptation occurs at the disparity level, then the after-effect(More)
The near response is composed of cross-coupled interactions between convergence and other distance-related oculomotor responses including accommodation, vertical vergence, and cyclovergence. The cross-coupling interactions are analogous to the body postural reflexes that maintain balance. Near-response couplings guide involuntary motor responses during(More)
The distribution of empirical corresponding points in the two retinas has been well studied along the horizontal and the vertical meridians, but not in other parts of the visual field. Using an apparent-motion paradigm, we measured the positions of those points across the central portion of the visual field. We found that the Hering-Hillebrand deviation (a(More)
Three signals are used to visually localize targets and stimulate saccades: (1) retinal location signals for intended saccade amplitude, (2) sensory-motor transform (SMT) of retinal signals to extra-ocular muscle innervation, and (3) estimates of eye position from extra-retinal signals. We investigated effects of adapting saccade amplitude to a double-step(More)
The theoretical horopter is an interesting qualitative tool for conceptualizing binocular correspondence, but its quantitative applications have been limited because they have ignored ocular kinematics and vertical binocular sensory fusion. Here we extend the mathematical definition of the horopter to a full surface over visual space, and we use this(More)
When an object is viewed binocularly, unequal perspective projections of the two eyes' half images (binocular disparity) provide a cue for the sensation of stereo depth. For almost 200 years, binocular disparity has remained synonymous with retinal disparity, which is computed by subtracting the distance of each half image from its respective fovea.(More)
When two moving objects are presented in perfect alignment, but are not visible for the same amount of time, the briefer object will often be perceived as "lagging" the object of greater duration. Most investigations of this flash-lag effect (FLE) employ high velocity broadband stimuli, such as lines or dots with sharp boundaries and flashes with rapid(More)
We have developed a dynamic model of accommodation that combines independent phasic-velocity and tonic-position neural signals to control position, velocity and acceleration properties of accommodative step responses. Phasic and tonic signals were obtained from neural integration of a fixed-height acceleration-pulse and variable-height velocity-step(More)
Previous studies have found that subjects can increase the velocity of accommodation using visual exercises such as pencil push ups, flippers, Brock strings and the like and myriad papers have shown improvement in accommodation facility (speed) and sufficiency (amplitude) using subjective tests following vision training but few have objectively measured(More)
PURPOSE Indirect observations suggest that the neural control of accommodation may undergo adaptive recalibration in response to age-related biomechanical changes in the accommodative system. However, there has been no direct demonstration of such an adaptive capability. This investigation was conducted to demonstrate short-term adaptation of accommodative(More)