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Regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells) have a critical role in the maintenance of immunological self-tolerance. Here we show that treatment of naive human or mouse T cells with IL-35 induced a regulatory population, which we call 'iT(R)35 cells', that mediated suppression via IL-35 but not via the inhibitory cytokines IL-10 or transforming growth factor-β(More)
Interleukin 35 (IL-35) belongs to the IL-12 family of heterodimeric cytokines but has a distinct functional profile. IL-35 suppresses T cell proliferation and converts naive T cells into IL-35-producing induced regulatory T cells (iTr35 cells). Here we found that IL-35 signaled through a unique heterodimer of receptor chains IL-12Rβ2 and gp130 or homodimers(More)
Regulatory T (Treg) cells respond to immune and inflammatory signals to mediate immunosuppression, but how the functional integrity of Treg cells is maintained under activating environments is unclear. Here we show that autophagy is active in Treg cells and supports their lineage stability and survival fitness. Treg cell-specific deletion of Atg7 or Atg5,(More)
Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) have a crucial role in the immune system by preventing autoimmunity, limiting immunopathology, and maintaining immune homeostasis. However, they also represent a major barrier to effective anti-tumour immunity and sterilizing immunity to chronic viral infections. The transcription factor Foxp3 has a major role in the(More)
Human regulatory T cells (T(reg)) are essential for the maintenance of immune tolerance. However, the mechanisms they use to mediate suppression remain controversial. Although IL-35 has been shown to play an important role in T(reg)-mediated suppression in mice, recent studies have questioned its relevance in human T(reg). In this study, we show that human(More)
The physiological basis and mechanistic requirements for a large number of functional immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs; high ITAM multiplicity) in the complex of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and the invariant signaling protein CD3 remain obscure. Here we found that whereas a low multiplicity of TCR-CD3 ITAMs was sufficient to(More)
Defects in clearance of dying cells have been proposed to underlie the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Mice lacking molecules associated with dying cell clearance develop SLE-like disease, and phagocytes from patients with SLE often display defective clearance and increased inflammatory cytokine production when exposed to dying cells in(More)
The interplay between effector T cells and regulatory T cells (Treg cells) is crucial for adaptive immunity, but how Treg cells control diverse effector responses is elusive. We found that the phosphatase PTEN links Treg cell stability to repression of type 1 helper T cell (TH1 cell) and follicular helper T cell (TFH cell) responses. Depletion of PTEN in(More)
Modification of proteins by the addition of lysine (K)-63-linked polyubiquitin (polyUb) chains is suggested to play important roles in a variety of cellular events, including DNA repair, signal transduction, and receptor endocytosis. However, identifying such modifications in living cells is complex and cumbersome. We have generated a monoclonal antibody(More)
The type I interferon (IFN) response represents the first line of defence to invading pathogens. Internalized viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs) of negative-strand RNA viruses induce an early IFN response by interacting with retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) and its recruitment to mitochondria. Here we employ three-dimensional stochastic optical(More)