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Regulatory T (Treg) cells respond to immune and inflammatory signals to mediate immunosuppression, but how the functional integrity of Treg cells is maintained under activating environments is unclear. Here we show that autophagy is active in Treg cells and supports their lineage stability and survival fitness. Treg cell-specific deletion of Atg7 or Atg5,(More)
Defects in clearance of dying cells have been proposed to underlie the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Mice lacking molecules associated with dying cell clearance develop SLE-like disease, and phagocytes from patients with SLE often display defective clearance and increased inflammatory cytokine production when exposed to dying cells in(More)
Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) have a crucial role in the immune system by preventing autoimmunity, limiting immunopathology, and maintaining immune homeostasis. However, they also represent a major barrier to effective anti-tumour immunity and sterilizing immunity to chronic viral infections. The transcription factor Foxp3 has a major role in the(More)
Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27), a molecular chaperone ubiquitously expressed in many cell types, has been shown to play a role in protecting neurons from cellular stresses. Unlike adult DRG neurons in vitro, neonatal DRG neurons require NGF for survival; withdrawal of NGF results in apoptosis of a majority of neonatal neurons. We hypothesized that Hsp27(More)
The nucleolus is a membrane-less organelle formed through liquid-liquid phase separation of its components from the surrounding nucleoplasm. Here, we show that nucleophosmin (NPM1) integrates within the nucleolus via a multi-modal mechanism involving multivalent interactions with proteins containing arginine-rich linear motifs (R-motifs) and ribosomal RNA(More)
The interplay between effector T cells and regulatory T cells (Treg cells) is crucial for adaptive immunity, but how Treg cells control diverse effector responses is elusive. We found that the phosphatase PTEN links Treg cell stability to repression of type 1 helper T cell (TH1 cell) and follicular helper T cell (TFH cell) responses. Depletion of PTEN in(More)
The importance of effective immune responses in recovery from acute hepadnaviral hepatitis has been demonstrated. However, there is no conclusive delineation of virological and immunological events occurring in the liver immediately after hepadnavirus invasion and during the preacute phase of infection. These very early events might be of primary importance(More)
The type I interferon (IFN) response represents the first line of defence to invading pathogens. Internalized viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs) of negative-strand RNA viruses induce an early IFN response by interacting with retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) and its recruitment to mitochondria. Here we employ three-dimensional stochastic optical(More)
The cellular response to nerve growth factor (NGF) is mediated by two structurally unrelated receptors, TrkA and p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), which have been shown to interact resulting in reciprocal modulation of function. In this study, we have examined the modulation of p75NTR protein expression by specific TrkA autophosphorylation sites in the(More)