Clifford H. Ryer

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Contrast degradation theory predicts that increased turbidity decreases the visibility of objects that are visible at longer distances more than that of objects that are visible at short distances. Consequently, turbidity should disproportionately decrease feeding rates by piscivorous fish, which feed on larger and more visible prey than particle-feeding(More)
The foraging effectiveness of walleye pollock juveniles, Theragra chalcogramma, was determined experimentally to test the hypothesis that social cues may facilitate the ability of individuals to exploit ephemeral food patches. Fish were tested when isolated, paired with one other fish, and in a group of six fish. Test fish exploited more food patches while(More)
Feeding chronology, daily ration, and the effects of temperature upon gastric evacuation were examined in the pipefish,Syngnathus fuscus, from field and laboratory data.S. fuscus displayed a pattern of diurnal feeding, characteristic of syngnathids. Daily ration calculations yielded estimates of 4.0 and 4.4% body weight per day, which are comparable to(More)
Although juvenile chum salmon,Oncorhynchus keta, are generally regarded as a schooling fish, when presented with a defensible point-source of food, some individuals abandon schooling, aggressively subordinate competitors, and monopolize food. When food is removed, fish gradually abandon solitary agonistic behaviors and return to schooling behavior. Agonism(More)
Recent studies show that fish forage actively when perceived risk is low, but decrease foraging and increase vigilance when perceived risk is high. Isolated juvenile chum salmon,Oncorhynchus keta, were visually exposed to groups of conspecifics engaged in different activities to examine their ability to gain information about foraging opportunity and risk(More)
It is widely held that when predator avoidance conflicts with other activities, such as feeding, avoidance of predators often takes precedence. In this study, we examine how predation risk and food distribution interact to influence the schooling behavior and swimming speed of foraging juvenile walleye pollock, Theragra chalcogramma. Fish were acclimated to(More)
Animals balance feeding and anti-predator behaviors at various temporal scales. When risk is infrequent or brief, prey can postpone feeding in the short term and temporally allocate feeding behavior to less risky periods. If risk is frequent or lengthy, however, prey must eventually resume feeding to avoid fitness consequences. Species may exhibit different(More)
Social interactions can influence both foraging reward and vulnerability to predators. We examined social interactions in groups of juvenile chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta, receiving food that was either spatially dispersed, with many food items appearing synchronously, or spatially clumped, with individual food items appearing asynchronously. These(More)
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