Clifford C. Shone

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The ADP-ribosylating toxins (ADPRTs) are a family of toxins that catalyse the hydrolysis of NAD and the transfer of the ADP-ribose moiety onto a target. This family includes many notorious killers, responsible for thousands of deaths annually including: cholera, enterotoxic Escherichia coli, whooping cough, diphtheria and a plethora of Clostridial binary(More)
The seven types (A--G) of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) are Zn2+ -dependent endoproteases that potently block neurosecretion. Syntaxin is presently thought to be the sole substrate for BoNT/C1, and synaptosomal-associated protein of Mr = 25 000 (SNAP-25) is selectively proteolyzed by types A and E. In this study, the effects of C1 on Ca2+ -regulated(More)
Botulinum neurotoxin serotype C (BoNT/C) is a 150-kDa protein produced by Clostridium botulinum, which causes animal botulism. In contrast to the other botulinum neurotoxins that contain one atom of zinc, highly purified preparations of BoNT/C bind two atoms of zinc per toxin molecule. BoNT/C is a zinc-endopeptidase that cleaves syntaxin 1A at the(More)
Clostridial neurotoxins potently and specifically inhibit neurotransmitter release in defined cell types. Here we report that a catalytically active derivative (termed LH(N)/A) of the type A neurotoxin from Clostridium botulinum has been coupled to a lectin obtained from Erythrina cristagalli to form a novel conjugate. This conjugate exhibits an in vitro(More)
The C3stau2 exoenzyme from Staphylococcus aureus is a C3-like ADP-ribosyltransferase that ADP-ribosylates not only RhoA-C but also RhoE/Rnd3. In this study we have crystallized and determined the structure of C3stau2 in both its native form and in complex with NAD at 1.68- and 2.02-A resolutions, respectively. The topology of C3stau2 is similar to that of(More)
Clostridium difficile is a major and growing problem as a hospital-associated infection that can cause severe, recurrent diarrhea. The mechanism by which the bacterium colonizes the gut during infection is poorly understood but undoubtedly involves protein components within the surface layer (S-layer), which play a role in adhesion. In C. difficile, the(More)
Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins are potently toxic proteins of 150 kDa with specific endopeptidase activity for SNARE proteins involved in vesicle docking and release. Following treatment with trypsin, a fragment of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A that lacks the C-terminal domain responsible for neuronal cell binding, but retains full catalytic activity,(More)
Sortase enzymes are responsible for covalent anchoring of specific proteins to the peptidoglycan of the cell wall of gram-positive bacteria. In some gram-positive bacteria (e.g. Staphylococcus aureus), sortases have been found to be essential for pathogenesis and their inhibitors are under development as potential novel therapeutics. Here we provide the(More)
ADP-ribosylation is one of the favored modes of cell intoxication employed by several bacteria. Clostridium difficile is recognized to be an important nosocomial pathogen associated with considerable morbidity and attributable mortality. Along with its two well known toxins, Toxin A and Toxin B, it produces an ADP-ribosylating toxin that targets monomeric(More)