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We present evidence that membrane transporters can control the membrane receptor's agonist concentration in restricted extracellular spaces of a biological model. The model is constructed by co-expressing glycine/Na/Cl cotransporters (GLYT1b) and NMDA receptors (NMDARs) (composed of the subunits NR1 and NR2A or NR2B) in Xenopus oocytes. We use the(More)
Voltage clamp experiments carried out on nodes of Ranvier of myelinated fibres of Rana esculenta showed that a small fractoon of sodium channels fail to inactivate. Thus during long lasting depolarizing pulses there is a small Na-current superimposed on the leakage and potassium currents. This late Na-current appears more marked in sensory fibres than in(More)
The effects of two toxins extracted from the tentacles of Anemonia sulcata on ionic currents have been tested on the nodal membrane of myelinated nerve fibres from Rana esculenta. While external application of Toxin I at 100 muM leaves both specific ionic currents unmodified, Toxin II at 10 muM reacts with a receptor site associated with the sodium(More)
This paper introduces the Adopted-Pet (AP) protocol, an automatic (i.e. requiring no human interaction) secure pairing protocol, adequate for the pairing between a passive RFID tag and a reader. Most pairing protocols rely for their security on a certain advantage that the legitimate devices have over any malicious users. Such advantages include proximity(More)
In this paper we consider the complexity of several problems involving finite algebraic structures. Given finite algebras A and B, these problems ask the following. (1) Do A and B satisfy precisely the same identities? (2) Do they satisfy the same quasi-identities? (3) Do A and B have the same set of term operations? In addition to the general case in which(More)
Steganography is the study of data hiding for the purpose of covert communication. A secret message is inserted into a cover file so that the very existence of the message is not apparent. Most current steganography algorithms insert data in the spatial or transform domains; common transforms include the discrete cosine transform, the discrete Fourier(More)
In manually dissected Xenopus oocytes, we found that the replacement of external sodium by Tris, choline, or lithium induced a large membrane depolarization and, in voltage clamp, a large inward current. This current appears to be due to activation of a calcium-dependent chloride conductance since it is reversed near ECl, increased by the removal of(More)