Clifford B. Saper

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Neurons containing the neuropeptide orexin (hypocretin) are located exclusively in the lateral hypothalamus and send axons to numerous regions throughout the central nervous system, including the major nuclei implicated in sleep regulation. Here, we report that, by behavioral and electroencephalographic criteria, orexin knockout mice exhibit a phenotype(More)
Orexins (hypocretins) are neuropeptides synthesized in the central nervous system exclusively by neurons of the lateral hypothalamus. Orexin-containing neurons have widespread projections and have been implicated in complex physiological functions including feeding behavior, sleep states, neuroendocrine function, and autonomic control. Two orexin receptors(More)
A series of findings over the past decade has begun to identify the brain circuitry and neurotransmitters that regulate our daily cycles of sleep and wakefulness. The latter depends on a network of cell groups that activate the thalamus and the cerebral cortex. A key switch in the hypothalamus shuts off this arousal system during sleep. Other hypothalamic(More)
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep consists of a dreaming state in which there is activation of the cortical and hippocampal electroencephalogram (EEG), rapid eye movements, and loss of muscle tone. Although REM sleep was discovered more than 50 years ago, the neuronal circuits responsible for switching between REM and non-REM (NREM) sleep remain poorly(More)
Separate studies have implicated the lateral habenula (LHb) or amygdala-related regions in processing aversive stimuli, but their relationships to each other and to appetitive motivational systems are poorly understood. We show that neurons in the recently identified GABAergic rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), which receive a major LHb input, project(More)
the hypothalamus. Examination of these lesions has shown them to be very large, but they all have in common extensive bilateral damage to the region occupied by the dorsomedial and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei, the arcuate nucleus, the fornix, Joel K. Elmquist,*† Carol F. Elias,*† and Clifford B. Saper*‡ *Department of Neurology and Program in(More)
More than 70 years ago, von Economo predicted a wake-promoting area in the posterior hypothalamus and a sleep-promoting region in the preoptic area. Recent studies have dramatically confirmed these predictions. The ventrolateral preoptic nucleus contains GABAergic and galaninergic neurons that are active during sleep and are necessary for normal sleep. The(More)
Leptin, secreted by white adipocytes, has profound feeding, metabolic, and neuroendocrine effects. Leptin acts on the brain, but the specific anatomic sites and pathways responsible for mediating these effects are still unclear. We have systematically examined distributions of mRNA of leptin receptor isoforms in the rat brain by using a probe specific for(More)
On the basis of stimulation studies, it has been proposed that the infralimbic cortex (ILC), Brodmann area 25, may serve as an autonomic motor cortex. To explore this hypothesis, we have combined anterograde tracing with Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) and retrograde tracing with wheat germ aggutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP)(More)
Recent studies have identified several neuropeptide systems in the hypothalamus that are critical in the regulation of body weight. The lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) has long been considered essential in regulating food intake and body weight. Two neuropeptides, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and the orexins (ORX), are localized in the LHA and(More)