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A series of findings over the past decade has begun to identify the brain circuitry and neurotransmitters that regulate our daily cycles of sleep and wakefulness. The latter depends on a network of cell groups that activate the thalamus and the cerebral cortex. A key switch in the hypothalamus shuts off this arousal system during sleep. Other hypothalamic(More)
Orexins (hypocretins) are neuropeptides synthesized in the central nervous system exclusively by neurons of the lateral hypothalamus. Orexin-containing neurons have widespread projections and have been implicated in complex physiological functions including feeding behavior, sleep states, neuroendocrine function, and autonomic control. Two orexin receptors(More)
Separate studies have implicated the lateral habenula (LHb) or amygdala-related regions in processing aversive stimuli, but their relationships to each other and to appetitive motivational systems are poorly understood. We show that neurons in the recently identified GABAergic rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), which receive a major LHb input, project(More)
Neurons containing the neuropeptide orexin (hypocretin) are located exclusively in the lateral hypothalamus and send axons to numerous regions throughout the central nervous system, including the major nuclei implicated in sleep regulation. Here, we report that, by behavioral and electroencephalographic criteria, orexin knockout mice exhibit a phenotype(More)
In summary, we have demonstrated the subnuclear organization of PB, and correlated this with the origins of its efferent connections. In general, PBm projects primarily to the insular, infralimbic and lateral frontal cortex, and to associated areas in the thalamus, hypothalamus and amygdala. PBl chiefly innervates the autonomic nuclei of the hypothalamus(More)
We examined the subnuclear organization of projections to the parabrachial nucleus (PB) from the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), area postrema, and medullary reticular formation in the rat by using the anterograde and retrograde transport of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase conjugate and anterograde tracing with Phaseolus(More)
The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTn) was originally defined on cytoarchitectonic grounds in humans. We have employed cytoarchitectonic, cytochemical, and connectional criteria to define a homologous cell group in the rat. A detailed cytoarchitectonic delineation of the mesopontine tegmentum, including the PPTn, was performed employing tissue(More)
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep consists of a dreaming state in which there is activation of the cortical and hippocampal electroencephalogram (EEG), rapid eye movements, and loss of muscle tone. Although REM sleep was discovered more than 50 years ago, the neuronal circuits responsible for switching between REM and non-REM (NREM) sleep remain poorly(More)
BACKGROUND Working memory (WM) deficits in schizophrenia have been associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) dysfunction in neuroimaging studies. We previously found increased DLPFC activation in schizophrenic versus normal subjects during WM performance (Manoach et al 1999b). We now have investigated whether schizophrenic subjects recruit(More)
the hypothalamus. Examination of these lesions has shown them to be very large, but they all have in common extensive bilateral damage to the region occupied by the dorsomedial and ventromedial hy-pothalamic nuclei, the arcuate nucleus, the fornix, and that portion of the lateral hypothalamic area ven-Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and tral to it, and(More)