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A series of findings over the past decade has begun to identify the brain circuitry and neurotransmitters that regulate our daily cycles of sleep and wakefulness. The latter depends on a network of cell groups that activate the thalamus and the cerebral cortex. A key switch in the hypothalamus shuts off this arousal system during sleep. Other hypothalamic(More)
Separate studies have implicated the lateral habenula (LHb) or amygdala-related regions in processing aversive stimuli, but their relationships to each other and to appetitive motivational systems are poorly understood. We show that neurons in the recently identified GABAergic rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), which receive a major LHb input, project(More)
Orexins (hypocretins) are neuropeptides synthesized in the central nervous system exclusively by neurons of the lateral hypothalamus. Orexin-containing neurons have widespread projections and have been implicated in complex physiological functions including feeding behavior, sleep states, neuroendocrine function, and autonomic control. Two orexin receptors(More)
In summary, we have demonstrated the subnuclear organization of PB, and correlated this with the origins of its efferent connections. In general, PBm projects primarily to the insular, infralimbic and lateral frontal cortex, and to associated areas in the thalamus, hypothalamus and amygdala. PBl chiefly innervates the autonomic nuclei of the hypothalamus(More)
Neurons containing the neuropeptide orexin (hypocretin) are located exclusively in the lateral hypothalamus and send axons to numerous regions throughout the central nervous system, including the major nuclei implicated in sleep regulation. Here, we report that, by behavioral and electroencephalographic criteria, orexin knockout mice exhibit a phenotype(More)
More than 70 years ago, von Economo predicted a wake-promoting area in the posterior hypothalamus and a sleep-promoting region in the preoptic area. Recent studies have dramatically confirmed these predictions. The ventrolateral preoptic nucleus contains GABAergic and galaninergic neurons that are active during sleep and are necessary for normal sleep. The(More)
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep consists of a dreaming state in which there is activation of the cortical and hippocampal electroencephalogram (EEG), rapid eye movements, and loss of muscle tone. Although REM sleep was discovered more than 50 years ago, the neuronal circuits responsible for switching between REM and non-REM (NREM) sleep remain poorly(More)
BACKGROUND Working memory (WM) deficits in schizophrenia have been associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) dysfunction in neuroimaging studies. We previously found increased DLPFC activation in schizophrenic versus normal subjects during WM performance (Manoach et al 1999b). We now have investigated whether schizophrenic subjects recruit(More)
The tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) is the major source of histaminergic innervation of the mammalian brain and is thought to play a major role in regulating wake-sleep states. We recently found that sleep-active neurons in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) provide a major input to the TMN, but the specificity of this projection and the(More)
Although the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is well established as providing a genetically based clock for timing circadian rhythms, the mechanisms by which the timing signal is translated into circadian rhythms of behavior and underlying physiology have only recently come to light. The bulk of the SCN outflow terminates in a column of tissue that arches(More)