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Transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-betas) constitute an expanding family of multifunctional cytokines with prominent roles in development, cell proliferation, differentiation, and repair. We have cloned, expressed, and raised antibodies against a distant member of the TGF-betas, growth/differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15). GDF-15 is identical to macrophage(More)
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a widely distributed member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily and a potent neurotrophic molecule for several neuron populations in the peripheral and central nervous system. We show here that adrenal medullary chromaffin cells synthesize GDNF mRNA and contain immunoreactive GDNF protein.(More)
The superfamily of transforming growth factors-beta (TGF-beta) comprises an expanding list of multifunctional proteins serving as regulators of cell proliferation and differentiation. Prominent members of this family include the TGF-beta s 1-5, activins, bone morphogenetic proteins and a recently discovered glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor(More)
Glia cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a recently cloned member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily, has been implicated in the survival, morphological and functional differentiation of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and motoneurons in vitro and in vivo. The factor may thus have utility in the treatment of various human(More)
Current genome projects are resulting in a flood of sequence data. The interpretation of these sequences is lagging, and optimized data analysis strategies need to be developed. Much can be learned from comparing different genomes, as genomes of distant organisms may still encode proteins with high sequence similarity. The order of genes (co linearity) in(More)
Members of the TGF-beta family have been described to bind to a heteromeric complex of two types of serine/threonine kinase receptors, named T beta R-I and T beta R-II. These receptor molecules are essential for TGF-beta-specific signalling. Several type I and type II receptors have been identified by a variety of methods. TGF-beta 2 and 3 are widely(More)
Growth/differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) is a novel member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of multifunctional cytokines. We show here that GDF5 is expresed in the developing CNS including the mesencephalon and acts as a neurotrophic, survival promoting molecule for rat dopaminergic midbrain neurons, which degenerate in(More)
We have studied the postnatal expression of neurotrophins, their cognate high-affinity trk receptors and the low-affinity NGF receptor (p75LNGFR) in the rat adrenal gland using RT-PCR. Neurotrophin mRNAs were detectable during the whole postnatal period. Strongest signals were obtained for BDNF and NT4/5. Expression of trkA, trkB, trkC and p75LNGFR was(More)
Transforming growth factors beta (TGF-beta s) represent a family of multifunctional cytokines affecting growth and differentiation of a large variety of cell types. Several members of this family, as e.g. TGF-beta 2 and -beta 3 as well as glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), have recently been shown to be expressed in the developing and adult(More)