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Transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-betas) constitute an expanding family of multifunctional cytokines with prominent roles in development, cell proliferation, differentiation, and repair. We have cloned, expressed, and raised antibodies against a distant member of the TGF-betas, growth/differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15). GDF-15 is identical to macrophage(More)
We have cloned a novel member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily from a human placental cDNA library. The sequence is identical to five very recently published sequences, of which only one (macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1, MIC-1) has been characterized in terms of function. In light of the present data demonstrating the wide(More)
We have cloned, expressed, and raised antibodies against a novel member of the TGF-beta superfamily, growth/differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15). The predicted protein is identical to macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1), which was discovered simultaneously. GDF-15 is a more distant member of the TGF-beta superfamily and does not belong to one of the(More)
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a widely distributed member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily and a potent neurotrophic molecule for several neuron populations in the peripheral and central nervous system. We show here that adrenal medullary chromaffin cells synthesize GDNF mRNA and contain immunoreactive GDNF protein.(More)
The superfamily of transforming growth factors-beta (TGF-beta) comprises an expanding list of multifunctional proteins serving as regulators of cell proliferation and differentiation. Prominent members of this family include the TGF-beta s 1-5, activins, bone morphogenetic proteins and a recently discovered glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor(More)
We have isolated the rat, mouse and human genes of a distant member of the TGF-beta superfamily, growth/differentiation factor-15/macrophage inhibiting cytokine-1 (GDF-15/MIC-1) by screening of genomic libraries. All three genes are composed of two exons, and contain one single intron that interrupts the coding sequences at identical positions within the(More)
Polyadenylation of messenger RNA precursors requires the nucleotide sequence AAUAAA and two factors: poly(A) polymerase and a specificity factor termed cleavage and polyadenylation factor (CPF). We have purified CPF from calf thymus and from HeLa cells to near homogeneity. Four polypeptides with molecular masses of 160, 100, 73, and 30 kDa cofractionate(More)
Glia cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a recently cloned member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily, has been implicated in the survival, morphological and functional differentiation of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and motoneurons in vitro and in vivo. The factor may thus have utility in the treatment of various human(More)
Current genome projects are resulting in a flood of sequence data. The interpretation of these sequences is lagging, and optimized data analysis strategies need to be developed. Much can be learned from comparing different genomes, as genomes of distant organisms may still encode proteins with high sequence similarity. The order of genes (co linearity) in(More)
A recently cloned neurotrophic factor, Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF), has been implicated in the survival and morphological and functional differentiation of midbrain dopaminergic neurones in vitro. GDNF has therefore been proposed as a factor which may have utility in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. In the present study, we have(More)