Clemens Michael Altaner

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The structure of cellulose microfibrils in wood is not known in detail, despite the abundance of cellulose in woody biomass and its importance for biology, energy, and engineering. The structure of the microfibrils of spruce wood cellulose was investigated using a range of spectroscopic methods coupled to small-angle neutron and wide-angle X-ray scattering.(More)
In the primary walls of growing plant cells, the glucose polymer cellulose is assembled into long microfibrils a few nanometers in diameter. The rigidity and orientation of these microfibrils control cell expansion; therefore, cellulose synthesis is a key factor in the growth and morphogenesis of plants. Celery (Apium graveolens) collenchyma is a useful(More)
Polysaccharides were located in the walls of normal and compression wood tracheids of Pinus radiata (radiata pine), Picea sitchensis (Sitka spruce) and Picea abies (Norway spruce) by transmission electron microscopy using immunogold labelling with monoclonal antibodies to (1-->4)-beta-galactan (LM5), (1-->3)-beta-glucan, arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs)(More)
Trees withstand wind and snow loads by synthesising wood that varies greatly in mechanical properties: flexible in twigs and in the stem of the sapling, and rigid in the outer part of the mature stem. The 'molecular Velcro' model of Keckes et al. [2003. Cell-wall recovery after irreversible deformation of wood. Nat. Mater. 2, 810-814] permits the simulation(More)
Cellulose acetate (CA) was found to be a substrate of several acetyl xylan esterases (AXE). Eight AXE from different carbohydrate esterase (CE) families were tested on their activity against CA with a degree of substitution of 0.7 and 1.4. The classification of the AXEs into CE families according to their structure by hydrophobic cluster analysis followed(More)
Wood cell wall polysaccharides can be probed with monoclonal antibodies and carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs). Binding of monoclonal antibodies to β-1-4-xylan, β-1-4-mannan, β-1-3-glucan, and α-1-5-arabinan structures were observed in native Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carrière) wood cell walls. Furthermore CBMs of different families, differing(More)
The spatial arrangement of polymers in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) was investigated by NMR proton spindiffusion studies, supplemented by deuterium-exchange experiments monitored by FTIR spectroscopy. The FTIR spectra of earlywood sections after vapour-phase exchange with deuterium oxide showed that 43% of the hydroxyl groups were accessible to(More)
Two mutations on the same allele of RET gene were revealed in a family with predisposition to multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A. The first mutation changes codon 634 from cysteine to serine. The second, a novel mutation in codon 641, changes alanine to serine in the transmembrane domain of the RET protein. Two mutations were present in close(More)
The distribution of acetone soluble extractives in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) grown in Northern Britain was determined. Neither yield class, latitude, longitude nor thinning were found to have an impact on the total amount of acetone soluble extractives. More extractives were present in heartwood compared to sapwood but there were no significant(More)
As the severity of compression wood influences the mechanical and chemical properties of wood it is desirable to be able to measure compression wood severity. However, so far no satisfactory method has been reported in the literature. Here we describe how scanning FTIR micro-spectroscopy can be employed to achieve CW severity measurements on increment cores(More)