Clemens Krost

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The columnar phenotype of apple trees (Malus x domestica) is characterized by a compact growth habit with fruit spurs instead of lateral branches. These properties provide significant economic advantages by enabling high density plantings. The columnar growth results from the presence of a dominant allele of the gene Columnar (Co) located on chromosome 10(More)
Columnar apple trees (Malus x domestica) provide several economic advantages due to their specific growth habit. The columnar phenotype is the result of the dominant allele of the gene Co and is characterized by thick stems with short internodes and reduced lateral branching. Co is located on chromosome 10 and often appears in a heterozygous state (Co/co).(More)
Plant architecture is regulated by a complex interplay of some key players (often transcription factors), phytohormones and other signaling molecules such as microRNAs. The columnar growth habit of apple trees is a unique form of plant architecture characterized by thick and upright stems showing a compaction of internodes and carrying short fruit spurs(More)
Prion diseases induce neurodegeneration in specific brain areas for undetermined reasons. A thorough understanding of the localization of the disease-causing molecule, the prion protein (PrP), could inform on this issue but previous studies have generated conflicting conclusions. One of the more intriguing disagreements is whether PrP is synthesized by(More)
Prion diseases (PrDs) are transmissible and fatal neurodegenerative diseases naturally occurring in humans and animals, ‘‘mad cow’’ disease being the most infamous. Their development and propagation requires endogenous prion protein (PrP) and derives from the conversion of PrP to a misfolded form, which combines with other misfolded PrP molecules to form(More)
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