Clemens Krepler

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Despite success with BRAFV600E inhibitors, therapeutic responses in patients with metastatic melanoma are short-lived because of the acquisition of drug resistance. We identified a mechanism of intrinsic multidrug resistance based on the survival of a tumor cell subpopulation. Treatment with various drugs, including cisplatin and vemurafenib, uniformly(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the roles of melanoma-associated macrophages in melanoma resistance to BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN An in vitro macrophage and melanoma cell coculture system was used to investigate whether macrophages play a role in melanoma resistance to BRAFi. The effects of macrophages in tumor resistance were examined by(More)
Acquired drug resistance constitutes a major challenge for effective cancer therapies with melanoma being no exception. The dynamics leading to permanent resistance are poorly understood but are important to design better treatments. Here we show that drug exposure, hypoxia or nutrient starvation leads to an early innate cell response in melanoma cells(More)
Elevated activity of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade is found in the majority of human melanomas and is known to regulate proliferation, survival and invasion. Current targeted therapies focus on decreasing the activity of this pathway; however, we do not fully understand how these therapies impact tumor biology, especially(More)
Therapies that target signalling molecules that are mutated in cancers can often have substantial short-term effects, but the emergence of resistant cancer cells is a major barrier to full cures. Resistance can result from secondary mutations, but in other cases there is no clear genetic cause, raising the possibility of non-genetic rare cell variability.(More)
Malignant melanoma is a life-threatening skin cancer increasingly diagnosed in the western world. In advanced disease the prognosis is grave. Growth and metastasis formation in melanomas are regulated by a network of cytokines, cytokine-receptors, and adhesion molecules. However, little is known about surface antigens and target expression profiles in human(More)
Although BRAF and MEK inhibitors have proven clinical benefits in melanoma, most patients develop resistance. We report a de novo MEK2-Q60P mutation and BRAF gain in a melanoma from a patient who progressed on the MEK inhibitor trametinib and did not respond to the BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib. We also identified the same MEK2-Q60P mutation along with BRAF(More)
PURPOSE To test second-line personalized medicine combination therapies, based on genomic and proteomic data, in patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN We established 12 PDXs from BRAF inhibitor-progressed melanoma patients. Following expansion, PDXs were analyzed using targeted sequencing and reverse-phase protein arrays. By using(More)
The complex biochemical effects of RAF inhibitors account for both the effectiveness and mechanisms of resistance to these drugs, but a unified mechanistic model has been lacking. Here we show that RAF inhibitors exert their effects via two distinct allosteric mechanisms. Drug resistance due to dimerization is determined by the position of the αC helix(More)
Although cyclin dependent kinase (CDK)-2 is known to be dispensable for the growth of most tumors, it is thought to be important for the proliferation of melanoma cells, where its expression is controlled by the melanocyte-lineage specific transcription factor MITF. Treatment of a panel of melanoma cells with the CDK inhibitor dinaciclib led to a(More)