Clemens Grafe

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This paper investigates the barriers to trade in Central Asia. While much of the existing literature on international integration of FSU countries has focused on the quantities traded, we use relative prices to shed some light on impediments to trade. We find that the impact of borders on price variations across different locations in Central Asia is much(More)
The role of the exchange rate in the early phase of transition remains a source of debate among analysts and policymakers. At stake are important issues like the need to peg the exchange rate as a nominal anchor to control inflation, the risk of overvaluation, the effect of a real appreciation on structural changes, the proper evolution of the current(More)
Worldwide, the vast majority of the elderly are heavily dependent on social security or pension systems for their income. However, in most countries there is growing concern over the stability of such systems. Several countries have recently experienced severe pension crises, including periodic failure to pay benefits or the dramatic erosion of benefit(More)
In Germany the sweet and sour cherry breeding is concentrated at the Julius Kühn-Institut in Dresden-Pillnitz. The main breeding goals are directed on sweet cherries for fresh market and sour cherries for processing. The selection of new cultivars is focused on fruit quality, high and stable fruit set and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress. In result of(More)
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