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Metformin and thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are believed to exert their antidiabetic effects via different mechanisms. As evidence suggests that both impair cell respiration in vitro, this study compared their effects on mitochondrial functions. The activity of complex I of the respiratory chain, which is known to be affected by metformin, was measured in(More)
Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are believed to induce insulin sensitization by modulating gene expression via agonistic stimulation of the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma). We have shown earlier that the TZD troglitazone inhibits mitochondrial fuel oxidation in isolated rat skeletal muscle. In the present study, rat soleus(More)
The nutrient-sensitive kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its downstream target S6 kinase (S6K) are involved in amino acid-induced insulin resistance. Whether the mTOR/S6K pathway directly modulates glucose metabolism in humans is unknown. We studied 11 healthy men (29 years old, BMI 23 kg/m(2)) twice in random order after oral administration(More)
1. The thiazolidinedione compound, troglitazone, enhances insulin action and reduces plasma glucose concentrations when administered chronically to type 2 diabetic patients. 2. To analyse to what extent thiazolidinediones interfere with liver function, we examined the acute actions of troglitazone (0.61 and 3.15 microM) on hepatic glucose and lactate(More)
Fibrates are used for the treatment of dyslipidemia and known to affect mitochondrial function in vitro. To better understand the mechanisms underlying their mitochondrial effects, fibrate actions on complex I of the respiratory chain and cell respiration were studied in vitro. In homogenates of rat skeletal muscle, fenofibrate, and to a lesser extent(More)
Leptin circulates in blood and is involved in body weight control primarily via hypothalamic receptors. To examine its direct metabolic action, effects of short-term portal leptin infusion: 1) on postprandial basal and epinephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis; and 2) on postabsorptive lactate-stimulated gluconeogenesis were studied in isolated perfused rat(More)
1 New thiazolidinediones BM13.1258 and BM15.2054 were studied with regard to their PPARgamma-agonistic activities and to their acute and chronic effects on glucose metabolism in soleus muscle strips from lean and genetically obese rats. 2 Both BM13.1258 and BM15.2054 revealed to be potent PPARgamma-activators in transient transfection assays in vitro. 3 In(More)
Leptin has both insulin-like and insulin-antagonistic effects on glucose metabolism. To test whether leptin interferes directly with insulin signaling, we perfused isolated rat livers with leptin (0.1, 0.5, 5, and 25 nmol/liter), leptin + insulin (5 nmol/liter + 10 nmol/liter), insulin (10 nmol/liter), or vehicle (control). Leptin reduced L-lactate-(10(More)
This study evaluated the hypothesis that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists, including thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and the rexinoid LG100268 (LG), directly affect human vascular cell function (proliferation, cell cycle, protein expression, lactate release) independently of (1) their PPARγ-activating potential and (2) the cells’(More)