Clemens Baumbach

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Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample of 101,069 individuals to 293,723(More)
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS Peptic ulcers are the most frequent cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. The use of hemoclips has become established as an effective form of treatment in addition to injection therapy. However, hemoclips have not previously been compared with injection therapy in an experimental setting using objective parameters. MATERIALS AND(More)
It has been suggested that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a role in metabolic disorders including obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. The fact that mitochondrial defects can be accumulated over time as a normal part of aging may explain why some individuals can eat all sorts of foods and remain at normal weight while they are young. However, around the(More)
Despite the fact that mitochondrial dysfunctions are increasingly recognized as key components in stress-related mental disorders, very little is known about the association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mitochondrial variants. To identify susceptibility mitochondrial genes for PTSD, we analyzed a total number of 978 mitochondrial(More)
Congenital heart defects (CHD) is the most common cause of death from a congenital structure abnormality in newborns and is often associated with fetal loss. There are many types of CHD. Human genetic studies have identified genes that are responsible for the inheritance of a particular type of CHD and for some types of CHD previously thought to be(More)
Homozygosity has long been associated with rare, often devastating, Mendelian disorders, and Darwin was one of the first to recognize that inbreeding reduces evolutionary fitness. However, the effect of the more distant parental relatedness that is common in modern human populations is less well understood. Genomic data now allow us to investigate the(More)
The epigenome is associated with biological factors, such as disease status, and environmental factors, such as smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index. Although there is a widespread perception that environmental influences on the epigenome are pervasive and profound, there has been little evidence to date in humans with respect to environmental(More)
BACKGROUND Westernized lifestyle has been blamed for allergy epidemics. One of its characteristics is increased distances and frequency of travelling from early life onwards. Early life travelling to places which substantially differ from home environment in terms of climate, vegetation and food could increase the exposure to further unknown allergens and(More)
Genome-wide association studies allow us to understand the genetics of complex diseases. Human metabolism provides information about the disease-causing mechanisms, so it is usual to investigate the associations between genetic variants and metabolite levels. However, only considering genetic variants and their effects on one trait ignores the possible(More)
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