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Transmission of Yersinia pestis from an infectious biofilm in the flea vector.
TLDR
It is shown that the hms genes are also required to produce an extracellular matrix and a biofilm in vitro, supporting the hypothesis that a transmissible infection in the flea depends on the development of aBiofilm on the hydrophobic, acellular surface of spines that line the interior of the proventriculus. Expand
Role of the Yersinia pestis plasminogen activator in the incidence of distinct septicemic and bubonic forms of flea-borne plague.
TLDR
An evolutionary scenario in which plague first emerged as a flea-borne septicemic disease of limited transmissibility is supported, in which subsequent acquisition of the plasminogen activator gene by horizontal transfer enabled the bubonic form of disease and increased the potential for epidemic spread. Expand
Transit through the Flea Vector Induces a Pretransmission Innate Immunity Resistance Phenotype in Yersinia pestis
TLDR
It is suggested that transit through the flea vector induces a phenotype that enhances survival and dissemination of Y. pestis after transmission to the mammalian host. Expand
Induction of the Yersinia pestis PhoP-PhoQ Regulatory System in the Flea and Its Role in Producing a Transmissible Infection
TLDR
It is reported that the ability to produce a normal foregut-blocking infection depends on induction of the Y. pestis PhoP-PhoQ two-component regulatory system in the flea. Expand
Retracing the evolutionary path that led to flea-borne transmission of Yersinia pestis.
TLDR
The results suggest a step-wise evolutionary model in which Y. pestis emerged as a flea-borne clone, with each genetic change incrementally reinforcing the transmission cycle, which conforms well to the ecological theory of adaptive radiation. Expand
Differential Control of Yersinia pestis Biofilm Formation In Vitro and in the Flea Vector by Two c-di-GMP Diguanylate Cyclases
TLDR
It is indicated that hmsT and y3730 are regulated post-transcriptionally to differentially control biofilm formation in vitro and in the flea vector, and identified a second c-di-GMP-regulated phenotype in Y. pestis. Expand
Characterization of Late Acyltransferase Genes of Yersinia pestis and Their Role in Temperature-Dependent Lipid A Variation
TLDR
This study shows that the Y. pestis deltamsbB deltalpxP double mutant was able to infect and block fleas as well as the parental wild-type strain, indicating that the low-temperature-dependent change to hexa-acylated lipid A synthesis is not required for survival in the flea gut. Expand
The Yersinia pestis caf1M1A1 Fimbrial Capsule Operon Promotes Transmission by Flea Bite in a Mouse Model of Bubonic Plague
TLDR
The results suggest that acquisition of the caf locus via horizontal transfer by an ancestral Y. pestis strain increased transmissibility and the potential for epidemic spread and support a model in which atypical caf-negative strains could emerge during climatic conditions that favor a high flea burden. Expand
Loss of a Biofilm-Inhibiting Glycosyl Hydrolase during the Emergence of Yersinia pestis
TLDR
The extracellular matrices of Y. pestis and staphylococcal biofilms are antigenically related, indicating a similar biochemical structure, and mutational loss of this glycosidase activity in Y. pests may have contributed to the recent evolution of flea-borne transmission. Expand
Serotype Differences and Lack of Biofilm Formation Characterize Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Infection of the Xenopsylla cheopis Flea Vector of Yersinia pestis
TLDR
The results support a model in which a genetic change in the Y. pseudotuberculosis progenitor of Y. pestis extended its pre-existing ex vivo biofilm-forming ability to the flea gut environment, thus enabling proventricular blockage and efficient flea-borne transmission. Expand
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