Clayton E Mathews

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In both humans and NOD mice, particular MHC genes are primary contributors to development of the autoreactive CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses against pancreatic beta cells that cause type 1 diabetes (T1D). Association studies have suggested, but not proved, that the HLA-A*0201 MHC class I variant is an important contributor to T1D in humans. In this study,(More)
Genetic analysis of autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has focused on genes controlling immune functions, with little investigation of innate susceptibility determinants expressed at the level of target beta cells. The Alloxan (AL) Resistant (R) Leiter (Lt) mouse strain, closely related to the IDDM-prone nonobese diabetic (NOD)/Lt strain,(More)
NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2, encoded by the mtDNA, has been associated with resistance to autoimmune type I diabetes (T1D) in a case control study. Recently, we confirmed a role for the mouse ortholog of the protective allele (mt-Nd2(a)) in resistance to T1D using genetic analysis of outcrosses between T1D-resistant ALR and T1D-susceptible NOD mice. We(More)
Sepsis, the systemic inflammatory response to microbial infection, induces changes in both innate and adaptive immunity that presumably lead to increased susceptibility to secondary infections, multiorgan failure, and death. Using a model of murine polymicrobial sepsis whose severity approximates human sepsis, we examined outcomes and defined requirements(More)
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Outbred CD-1 mice carry a spectrum of genetic susceptibilities for obesity and type 2 diabetes. ALS is an inbred strain with low antioxidant defenses produced by inbreeding CD-1 mice, with selection for susceptibility to alloxan, a generator of highly reactive oxygen free radicals and a potent beta-cell toxin. The objective of this study was to determine if(More)
Reactive oxygen species are used by the immune system to eliminate infections; however, they may also serve as signaling intermediates to coordinate the efforts of the innate and adaptive immune systems. In this study, we show that by eliminating macrophage and T cell superoxide production through the NADPH oxidase (NOX), T cell polarization was altered.(More)
ALS/Lt and ALR/Lt are inbred mouse strains selected for susceptibility and resistance to alloxan (AL)-induced diabetes. Within 24-h after AL administration in vivo, ALS/Lt islets were distinguished from ALR/Lt islets by more extensive necrotic changes. Within 7 days post-AL, ALS/Lt mice exhibited hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia, whereas ALR/Lt mice(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role in immune homeostasis and maintenance of self-tolerance. Tolerogenic DCs can be established by an encounter with apoptotic cells (ACs) and subsequent inhibition of maturation and effector functions. The receptor(s) and signaling pathway(s) involved in AC-induced inhibition of DCs have yet to be defined. We demonstrate(More)
The neutrophil oxidative burst reaction differentiates ALR/Lt mice, known for an unusual systemic elevation of antioxidant defenses, from ALS/Lt mice, a related strain known for reduced ability to withstand oxidative stress. Neutrophils from marrow of ALS mice produced a normal neutrophil oxidative burst following phorbol ester stimulation. In contrast, ALR(More)