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BACKGROUND A vaccine is needed to prevent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. METHODS A double-blind, randomized trial of a recombinant HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein subunit (rgp120) vaccine was conducted among men who have sex with men and among women at high risk for heterosexual transmission of HIV-1. Volunteers received 7 injections(More)
BACKGROUND Studies in animal models have shown that systemic immunization with a papillomavirus virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine composed of L1, a major structural viral protein, can confer protection against subsequent experimental challenge with the homologous virus. Here we report results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation trial to(More)
BACKGROUND Noroviruses cause epidemic and sporadic acute gastroenteritis. No vaccine is available to prevent norovirus illness or infection. METHODS We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial to assess the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of an investigational, intranasally delivered norovirus viruslike particle(More)
BACKGROUND mRNA expression signatures are frequently used as surrogate measures of cellular function and pathway changes. Few studies have directly compared results obtained using gene expression and multiplex protein assays for corresponding gene products. METHODS We used data available from a clinical trial of a human papillomavirus-16 vaccine that(More)
BACKGROUND Use of the recombinant proteins NefTat and gp120(W61D) formulated with the AS02A adjuvant system was previously shown to protect against AIDS in a rhesus macaque SHIV animal model system. METHODS Eighty-four HIV uninfected human participants were vaccinated intramuscularly at 0, 1, and 3 months and evaluated for safety. Immune responses were(More)
BACKGROUND A goal of T-cell HIV vaccines is to define the correlation between a vaccine-induced immune response and protection from HIV infection. We conducted a phase 2 trial to determine if a canarypox vaccine candidate (vCP1452) administered with rgp120 subunit protein would "qualify" for a trial to define a correlate of efficacy. METHODS A total of(More)
To determine the systemic cytokine pattern induced by vaccination with human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 virus-like particles (VLP), we analyzed 22 different cytokines in culture supernatants of L1 VLP-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from vaccine (n = 19) and placebo (n = 7) recipients at months 0 and 2 after vaccination, using a multiplex(More)
The causal association between papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer has been demonstrated; the development of a prophylactic vaccine to protect against HPV infection may therefore reduce the incidence of this cancer worldwide. Noninfectious HPV-like particles (VLPs), composed of the L1 major capsid protein, are current candidate vaccines for(More)
An oral, live attenuated, three-strain recombinant bacterial vaccine, ACE527, was demonstrated to generate strong immune responses to colonization factor and toxin antigens of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in human volunteers. The vaccine was safe and well tolerated at doses of up to 10(11) CFU, administered in each of two doses given 21 days(More)
Vaccines inducing pathogen-specific cell-mediated immunity are being developed using attenuated adenoviral (Ad) vectors. We report the results of two independent Phase I trials of similar replication-deficient Ad5 vaccines containing a near-consensus HIV-1 clade B gag transgene. Healthy HIV-uninfected adults were enrolled in two separate, multicenter,(More)