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BACKGROUND A vaccine is needed to prevent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. METHODS A double-blind, randomized trial of a recombinant HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein subunit (rgp120) vaccine was conducted among men who have sex with men and among women at high risk for heterosexual transmission of HIV-1. Volunteers received 7 injections(More)
BACKGROUND Studies in animal models have shown that systemic immunization with a papillomavirus virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine composed of L1, a major structural viral protein, can confer protection against subsequent experimental challenge with the homologous virus. Here we report results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation trial to(More)
The causal association between papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer has been demonstrated; the development of a prophylactic vaccine to protect against HPV infection may therefore reduce the incidence of this cancer worldwide. Noninfectious HPV-like particles (VLPs), composed of the L1 major capsid protein, are current candidate vaccines for(More)
Virus-specific CD4+ T cell help and CD8+ cytotoxic T cell responses are critical for maintenance of effective immunity in chronic viral infections. The importance of CD4+ T cells has been documented in HIV infection. To investigate whether a stronger CD4+ T cell response can be induced by modifications to enhance the T1 epitope, the first CD4+ T cell(More)
BACKGROUND Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a globally prevalent cause of diarrhea. Though usually self-limited, it can be severe and debilitating. Little is known about the host transcriptional response to infection. We report the first gene expression analysis of the human host response to experimental challenge with ETEC. METHODS We(More)
BACKGROUND Experimental human challenge models have played a major role in enhancing our understanding of infectious diseases. Primary outcomes have typically utilized overly simplistic outcomes that fail to entirely account for complex illness syndromes. We sought to characterize clinical outcomes associated with experimental infection with enterotoxigenic(More)
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of diarrhea in inhabitants from low-income countries and in visitors to these countries. The impact of the human intestinal microbiota on the initiation and progression of ETEC diarrhea is not yet well understood. We used 16S rRNA (ribosomal RNA) gene sequencing to study changes in the fecal(More)
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