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To determine the neuropathological substrate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorders, we examined persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome before their death and related their antemortem neuropsychological performance to postmortem indicators of HIV encephalitis, viral burden, and presynaptic and postsynaptic(More)
BACKGROUND Chemokines are involved in the migration of leukocytes and have been implicated in several inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system. Some of their receptors have been proposed to mediate HIV infection. OBJECTIVE To determine changes in chemokine and receptor expression in HIV encephalitis, and to determine whether upregulation leads(More)
Dysfunction of the central nervous system (CNS) is a prominent feature of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Many of these patients have a subacute encephalitis consistent with a viral infection of the CNS. We studied the brains of 12 AIDS patients using in situ hybridization to identify human immunodeficiency virus [HIV, referred to by others(More)
A spectrum of neurocognitive defects, termed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-associated cognitive/motor complex, has been described in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). AIDS dementia complex (ADC) is a severe form of this disease seen in 20 to 30% of terminally ill patients. The etiology of this complex is distinct from(More)
Microglia constitute the primary resident immune surveillance cell in the brain and are thought to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and HIV-associated dementia. Measuring microglial activation in vivo in patients suffering from these(More)
Recent studies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) encephalitis have shown that in addition to well established white matter damage, the neocortex shows thinning, loss of large neurons and dendritic damage. In order to identify neuronal populations affected in HIV encephalitis and to determine how neuronal damage relates to the severity of HIV(More)
Clinical and pathological evidence of subcortical central nervous system (CNS) damage is observed commonly in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalitis. Whether other CNS regions are also affected has not been well studied. We report neocortical damage in patients with HIV encephalitis. Using quantitative techniques, we demonstrate(More)
CT and MR scans of 29 immunocompromised patients (28 with AIDS or ARC, one with diabetes mellitus) who had documented intracranial cryptococcal infection were reviewed retrospectively. All patients had CT studies; 26 received iodinated contrast agent. CT findings included normal results in nine of 29, atrophy only in 13 of 29, nonenhancing lesions in three(More)
Correlation of thin (5-mm) sagittal high-field (1.5-T) MR images of three brain specimens and 11 normal volunteers with microtome sections of the human cerebellar vermis and hemispheres demonstrates that proton-density-weighted (long TR/short TE) and T2-weighted (long TR/long TE) spin-echo pulse sequences provide the greatest contrast between gray and white(More)