Learn More
To determine the neuropathological substrate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorders, we examined persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome before their death and related their antemortem neuropsychological performance to postmortem indicators of HIV encephalitis, viral burden, and presynaptic and postsynaptic(More)
BACKGROUND Chemokines are involved in the migration of leukocytes and have been implicated in several inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system. Some of their receptors have been proposed to mediate HIV infection. OBJECTIVE To determine changes in chemokine and receptor expression in HIV encephalitis, and to determine whether upregulation leads(More)
A spectrum of neurocognitive defects, termed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-associated cognitive/motor complex, has been described in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). AIDS dementia complex (ADC) is a severe form of this disease seen in 20 to 30% of terminally ill patients. The etiology of this complex is distinct from(More)
Recent studies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) encephalitis have shown that in addition to well established white matter damage, the neocortex shows thinning, loss of large neurons and dendritic damage. In order to identify neuronal populations affected in HIV encephalitis and to determine how neuronal damage relates to the severity of HIV(More)
Dysfunction of the central nervous system (CNS) is a prominent feature of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Many of these patients have a subacute encephalitis consistent with a viral infection of the CNS. We studied the brains of 12 AIDS patients using in situ hybridization to identify human immunodeficiency virus [HIV, referred to by others(More)
HIV encephalitis is unusual in that neurologic damage occurs in the absence of significant infection of neuronal or glial cells. Because the predominant infected cell in the brain is the macrophage, it has been proposed that release of viral or immune activation factors from macrophages may mediate neurologic damage. Numerous studies have examined the(More)
We report a 68-year-old man who received an IV inoculation of WBCs for an indium radionuclide scan containing 600 to 700 tissue culture infectious doses of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) from an HIV-1-infected individual. The recipient immediately received zidovudine, then was switched to dideoxyinosine and interferon-alpha, but died of(More)
Microglia constitute the primary resident immune surveillance cell in the brain and are thought to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and HIV-associated dementia. Measuring microglial activation in vivo in patients suffering from these(More)
Clinical and pathological evidence of subcortical central nervous system (CNS) damage is observed commonly in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalitis. Whether other CNS regions are also affected has not been well studied. We report neocortical damage in patients with HIV encephalitis. Using quantitative techniques, we demonstrate(More)
Cell cycle proteins regulate processes as diverse as cell division and cell death. Recently their role in neuronal death has been reported in several models of neurodegeneration. We have reported previously that two key regulators of the cell cycle, the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product (pRb) and transcription factor E2F1, exhibit altered(More)