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Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) has recently been identified as the proteinase responsible for cleavage of insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-4, an inhibitor of IGF action, in several biological fluids. Cleavage of IGFBP-4 by PAPP-A is believed to occur only in the presence of IGF. We here report that in addition to IGFBP-4,(More)
BACKGROUND Circulating markers indicating the instability of atherosclerotic plaques could have diagnostic value in unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction. We evaluated pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), a potentially proatherosclerotic metalloproteinase, as a marker of acute coronary syndromes. METHODS We examined the level of(More)
A novel metalloproteinase with similarity to pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), which we denoted PAPP-A2, has been identified. Through expression in mammalian cells we showed that recombinant PAPP-A2 polypeptide of 1558 residues resulted from processing of a 1791-residue prepro-protein. Unlike PAPP-A, PAPP-A2 migrated as a monomer (of 220 kDa)(More)
The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, a P-type ATPase, has a critical role in muscle function and metabolism. Here we present functional studies and three new crystal structures of the rabbit skeletal muscle Ca2+-ATPase, representing the phosphoenzyme intermediates associated with Ca2+ binding, Ca2+ translocation and dephosphorylation, that are based on(More)
Proteolytic cleavage of the six known insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) is a powerful means of rapid structure and function modification of these important growth-regulatory proteins. Intact IGFBP-4 is a potent inhibitor of IGF action in vitro, and cleavage of IGFBP-4 has been shown to abolish its ability to inhibit IGF stimulatory(More)
Preeclampsia (PE), which affects 4-8% of human pregnancies, causes significant maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Within the basal plate, placental cytotrophoblasts (CTBs) of fetal origin invade the uterus and extensively remodel the maternal vasculature. In PE, CTB invasion is often shallow, and vascular remodeling is rudimentary. To better(More)
The trafficking of normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) is believed to control its conversion to the altered conformation (designated PrPSc) associated with prion disease. Although anchored to the membrane by means of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI), PrPC on neurons is rapidly and constitutively endocytosed by means of coated pits, a property dependent(More)
The bioavailability of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and -II is controlled by six IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs 1-6). Bound IGF is not active, but proteolytic cleavage of the binding protein causes release of IGF. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) has recently been found to cleave IGFBP-4 in an IGF-dependent manner. To experimentally(More)
We introduced disulfide bonds to lock the integrin alphaLbeta2 I domain in predicted open, ligand binding or closed, nonbinding conformations. Transfectants expressing alphaLbeta2 heterodimers containing locked-open but not locked-closed or wild-type I domains constitutively adhered to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) substrates. Locking the I(More)
For efficient ligand binding, integrins must be activated. Specifically, a conformational change has been proposed in a ligand binding domain present within some integrins, the inserted (I) domain [Lee, J., Bankston, L., Arnaout, M. & Liddington, R. C. (1995) Structure (London) 3, 1333-1340]. This proposal remains controversial, however, despite extensive(More)