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In this paper we extend the "network theory of aging," and we argue that a global reduction in the capacity to cope with a variety of stressors and a concomitant progressive increase in proinflammatory status are major characteristics of the aging process. This phenomenon, which we will refer to as "inflamm-aging," is provoked by a continuous antigenic load(More)
A new method for the cytofluorimetric analysis of mitochondrial membrane potential in intact cells has been developed by using the lipophilic cationic probe 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1), whose monomer emits at 527 nm after excitation at 490 nm. Depending on the membrane potential, JC-1 is able of forming(More)
According to the remodeling theory of aging we proposed several years ago, the current data on human immunosenescence depicts a complex scenario where clonotypical immunity deteriorates, while ancestral innate/natural immunity is largely conserved or even up-regulated with age. Under an evolutionary perspective, antigens are the cause of a persistent(More)
Clinical observations indicate that elderly people are prone to severe, often lethal infectious diseases induced by novel pathogens. Since the ability to mount primary immune responses relies on the availability of naive T cells, the circulating naive T-cell reservoir was evaluated throughout the human life span. Naive T cells were identified as CD95(-) T(More)
BACKGROUND Age-related physiological changes in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as modifications in lifestyle, nutritional behaviour, and functionality of the host immune system, inevitably affect the gut microbiota, resulting in a greater susceptibility to infections. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS By using the Human Intestinal Tract Chip (HITChip)(More)
In population studies on aging, the data on genetic markers are often collected for individuals from different age groups. The purpose of such studies is to identify, by comparison of the frequencies of selected genotypes, "longevity" or "frailty" genes in the oldest and in younger groups of individuals. To address questions about more-complicated aspects(More)
Although the underlying mechanisms of longevity are not fully understood, it is known that mutation in genes that share similarities with those in humans involved in the insulin/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) signal response pathway can significantly extend life span in diverse species, including yeast, worms, fruit flies, and rodents. Intriguingly,(More)
Psychological, endocrine and immune parameters were measured over a 6-month period in 14 healthy subjects who underwent an unpredictable acute emotional stress (e.g. sudden death of a loved one) compared with 14 controls who did not. Probands were profoundly stressed as assessed 10 days after bereavement by their scores on the Hamilton Rating Scales of(More)
Sperm cells from control donors of proven fertility and men from barren couples were studied by conventional procedures, i.e., light microscopy as well as flow cytometry. Light microscopy analysis of semen included the measurement of spermatozoa concentration, morphology, and motility. All the men from barren couples were asthenozoospermic at the(More)
Two general theories, i.e. "the network theory of aging" (1989) and "the remodeling theory of aging" (1995), as well as their implications, new developments, and perspectives are reviewed and discussed. Particular attention has been paid to illustrate: (i) how the network theory of aging fits with recent data on aging and longevity in unicellular organisms(More)