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Consumption of flavanol-rich dark chocolate (DC) has been shown to decrease blood pressure (BP) and insulin resistance in healthy subjects, suggesting similar benefits in patients with essential hypertension (EH). Therefore, we tested the effect of DC on 24-hour ambulatory BP, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in(More)
Flavanols from chocolate appear to increase nitric oxide bioavailability, protect vascular endothelium, and decrease cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. We sought to test the effect of flavanol-rich dark chocolate (FRDC) on endothelial function, insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function, and blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients with impaired(More)
BACKGROUND Numerous studies indicate that flavanols may exert significant vascular protection because of their antioxidant properties and increased nitric oxide bioavailability. In turn, nitric oxide bioavailability deeply influences insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and vascular tone. Thus, flavanols may also exert positive metabolic and pressor effects.(More)
Primary aldosteronism (PA) has been associated with cardiovascular hypertrophy and fibrosis, in part independent of the blood pressure level, but deleterious effects on the kidneys are less clear. Likewise, it remains unknown if the kidney can be diversely involved in PA caused by aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA).(More)
Background: Recent evidence has indicated that flavanol consumption may have many health benefits in humans, including improved cognitive activities. Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effect of flavanol consumption on cognitive performance in cognitively intact elderly subjects. Design: This was a double-blind, controlled, parallel-arm study conducted(More)
Oxidative stress results from an imbalance between excessive formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or reactive nitrogen species and limited antioxidant defences. Endothelium and nitric oxide (NO) are key regulators of vascular health. NO bioavailability is modulated by ROS that degrade NO, uncouple NO synthase, and inhibit synthesis. Cardiovascular(More)
It has been suggested that cerebrovascular factors contribute to Alzheimer's disease. Soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) is directly involved in the development of vascular damage. We tested the hypothesis that sCD40L may be enhanced in Alzheimer's disease and predictive of its clinical course. Plasma sCD40L levels were evaluated in three groups of 40 consecutive(More)
BACKGROUND The presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension significantly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and mortality. Our aim is to estimate the epidemiological and economic burden to the health service of metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension in three European countries in 2008 and 2020. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Inflammation plays a pathogenic role in the development of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). CD40-CD40L interaction is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis; however, its role in the pathophysiology of restenosis is still unclear. We tested the hypothesis that soluble CD40L (sCD40L) may be involved(More)
We performed a prospective head-to-head comparison of the accuracy of the captopril test (CAPT) and the saline infusion test (SAL) for confirming primary aldosteronism due to an aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) in patients with different sodium intake. A total of 317 (26.9%) of the 1125 patients screened in the Primary Aldosteronism Prevalence in Italy(More)